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  1. Related Articles Ivermectin therapy for papulopustular rosacea and periorificial dermatitis in children: A series of 15 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Mar;76(3):567-570 Authors: Noguera-Morel L, Gerlero P, Torrelo A, Hernández-Martín Á PMID: 28212765 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  2. Phymatous rosacea presenting with leonine facies and clinical response to isotretinoin. Australas J Dermatol. 2017 Feb;58(1):72-73 Authors: Wee JS, Tan KB PMID: 28195321 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  3. Related Articles Friends or Foes? Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides and proteins in human skin diseases. Exp Dermatol. 2017 Feb 13;: Authors: Niyonsaba F, Kiatsurayanon C, Chieosilapatham P, Ogawa H Abstract Host defense peptides/proteins (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs), are key molecules in the cutaneous innate immune system. AMPs/HDPs historically exhibit broad-spectrum killing activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses, fungi and several parasites. Recently, AMPs/HDPs were shown to have important biological functions, including inducing cell proliferation, migration and differentiation; regulating inflammatory responses; controlling the production of various cytokines/chemokines; promoting wound healing; and improving skin barrier function. Despite the fact that AMPs/HDPs protect our body, several studies have hypothesized that these molecules actively contribute to the pathogenesis of various skin diseases. For example, AMPs/HDPs play crucial roles in the pathological processes of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, acne vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. Thus, AMPs/HDPs may be a double-edged sword, promoting cutaneous immunity while simultaneously initiating the pathogenesis of some skin disorders. This review will describe the most common skin-derived AMPs/HDPs (defensins, cathelicidins, S100 proteins, ribonucleases and dermcidin) and discuss the biology and both the positive and negative aspects of these AMPs/HDPs in skin inflammatory/infectious diseases. Understanding the regulation, functions and mechanisms of AMPs/HDPs may offer new therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of various skin disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28191680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  4. Related Articles Ten-year incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea: A nationwide population-based cohort study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 Feb 09;: Authors: Rim TH, Kang MJ, Choi M, Seo KY, Kim SS Abstract IMPORTANCE: Blepharitis is one of the most common conditions. However, no study has yet evaluated the epidemiology by evaluating a large population-based sample. BACKGROUND: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: We investigated the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a representative 1 million-sample of the Korean population, for patients diagnosed with blepharitis according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. METHODS: Annual and overall incidence and prevalence of blepharitis during the study period (2004-2013) were estimated after excluding chronic blepharitis patients, diagnosed during 2002-2003. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with blepharitis were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The first occurrence of blepharitis (Korean Classification of Diseases [KCD], H010, corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM], 373.0). RESULTS: A total of 1,116,363 individuals over 9,698,118 person-years were evaluated (mean follow-up: 8.7 years) from 2004 to 2013. The overall incidence was 1.1 (95 % Confidence Interval [CI], 1.1 - 1.1) per 100 person-years. The incidence increased with time (0.9 versus 1.3 per 100 person-years, in 2004 and 2013, respectively) and was higher in female patients (1.3 versus 0.9 per 100 person-years, respectively). The incidence was higher in both the elderly and children than in adolescents or young adults. The overall prevalence was 8.1% (95% CI: 8.0-8.1) among subjects aged 40 years or older. Chalazion, gastritis, Sjögren's syndrome, pterygium, rosacea, prostatic hypertrophy, atopy, irritable bowel disease, and peptic ulcer were associated with an increased incidence of blepharitis in the multivariable Cox model. CONCLUSIONS: We found that blepharitis was a relatively common disease, and is associated with various ocular and systemic conditions. PMID: 28183148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  5. Related Articles A Report of Two Cases of Solid Facial Edema in Acne. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2017 Feb 06;: Authors: Kuhn-Régnier S, Mangana J, Kerl K, Kamarachev J, French LE, Cozzio A, Navarini AA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Solid facial edema (SFE) is a rare complication of acne vulgaris. To examine the clinical features of acne patients with solid facial edema, and to give an overview on the outcome of previous topical and systemic treatments in the cases so far published. METHODS: We report two cases from Switzerland, both young men with initially papulopustular acne resistant to topical retinoids. RESULTS: Both cases responded to oral isotretinoin, in one case combined with oral steroids. Our cases show a strikingly similar clinical appearance to the cases described by Connelly and Winkelmann in 1985 (Connelly MG, Winkelmann RK. Solid facial edema as a complication of acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121(1):87), as well as to cases of Morbihan's disease that occurs as a rare complication of rosacea. CONCLUSION: Even 30 years after, the cause of the edema remains unknown. In two of the original four cases, a potential triggering factor was identified such as facial trauma or insect bites; however, our two patients did not report such occurrencies. The rare cases of solid facial edema in both acne and rosacea might hold the key to understanding the specific inflammatory pattern that creates both persisting inflammation and disturbed fluid homeostasis which can occur as a slightly different presentation in dermatomyositis, angioedema, Heerfordt's syndrome and other conditions. PMID: 28168623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  6. Related Articles Activation of p38 and Erk Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Ocular Rosacea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Feb 01;58(2):843-848 Authors: Wladis EJ, Swamy S, Herrmann A, Yang J, Carlson JA, Adam AP Abstract Purpose: Rosacea-related cutaneous inflammation is a common cause of ocular surface disease. Currently, there are no specific pharmacologic therapies to treat ocular rosacea. Here, we aimed at determining the differences in intracellular signaling activity in eyelid skin from patients with and without ocular rosacea. Methods: This was an observational, comparative case series including 21 patients undergoing lower lid ectropion surgery at one practice during 2013 and 2014 (18 patients with rosacea, 13 control patients), and 24 paraffin-embedded archival samples from Albany Medical Center, selected randomly (12 patients with rosacea, 12 control patients). Cutaneous biopsies resulting from elective lower lid ectropion surgery were analyzed by Proteome Profiler Human Phospho-Kinase Array, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Results: Samples derived from ocular rosacea patients showed increased levels of phosphorylated (active) p38 and Erk kinases. Phosphoproteins were mainly localized to the epidermis of affected eyelids. Conclusions: This finding provides a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of ocular rosacea and possibly other forms of rosacea. Further testing is required to determine if p38 and Erk activation have a causal role in ocular rosacea. The selective activation of keratinocytes in the affected skin suggests that topical pathway inhibition may be an effective treatment that will ultimately prevent ocular surface damage due to ocular rosacea. PMID: 28170535 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  7. Development and Clinical Validation of a Novel Photography-based Skin Erythema Evaluation System: A Comparison with the Calculated Consensus of Dermatologists. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017 Feb 08;: Authors: Cho M, Lee DH, Doh EJ, Kim Y, Chung JH, Kim HC, Kim S Abstract Erythema is the most common presenting sign of skin conditions [1,2]. Erythema reflects the degree of inflammation associated with various diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and lupus erythematosus; it is also cosmetically troublesome in subjects with flushing, rosacea, and photoaging [3,4]. In addition, there are vascular disorders that present with erythema, such as nevus flammeus, telangiectasia, and post-acne erythema [5]. Various therapeutic devices, medicines, and cosmetics have been developed to improve these dermatological conditions [6,7]. These modalities need to be validated objectively for dermatologists, patients, and regulatory agencies [8-10]. Various studies are in progress on both improvement of skin conditions and their objective measurement [11,12]. The evaluation of skin condition is highly dependent on dermatologists' judgments based on naked eyes, and the results can vary depending on the dermatologists' expertise and bias [13,14]. It is convenient to perform an evaluation using photographs, but this approach is affected by variation in the environment, such as uneven brightness and light type [15]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28178365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  8. Related Articles Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 as a Novel Biomarker for Hair Loss Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Feb 03;18(2): Authors: Woo YR, Hwang S, Jeong SW, Cho DH, Park HJ Abstract Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) is known to be involved in the inflammatory process via regulating the immune system in many cutaneous disorders, such as psoriasis and rosacea. However, the role of Erdr1 in various hair loss disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative role of Erdr1 in alopecias. Skin samples from 21 patients with hair loss disorders and five control subjects were retrieved, in order to assess their expression levels of Erdr1. Results revealed that expression of Erdr1 was significantly downregulated in the epidermis and hair follicles of patients with hair loss disorders, when compared to that in the control group. In particular, the expression of Erdr1 was significantly decreased in patients with alopecia areata. We propose that Erdr1 downregulation might be involved in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and could be considered as a novel biomarker for hair loss disorders. PMID: 28165377 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  9. Related Articles De novo characterization of microRNAs in oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and selection of reference genes for normalization of microRNA expression. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171120 Authors: Wang X, Li Y, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Liu X, Li Z Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have critical regulatory functions in almost all known biological processes at the post-transcriptional level in a variety of organisms. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the most serious pests in orchards worldwide and threatens the production of Rosacea fruits. In this study, a de novo small RNA library constructed from mixed stages of G. molesta was sequenced through Illumina sequencing platform and a total of 536 mature miRNAs consisting of 291 conserved and 245 novel miRNAs were identified. Most of the conserved and novel miRNAs were detected with moderate abundance. The miRNAs in the same cluster normally showed correlated expressional profiles. A comparative analysis of the 79 conserved miRNA families within 31 arthropod species indicated that these miRNA families were more conserved among insects and within orders of closer phylogenetic relationships. The KEGG pathway analysis and network prediction of target genes indicated that the complex composed of miRNAs, clock genes and developmental regulation genes may play vital roles to regulate the developmental circadian rhythm of G. molesta. Furthermore, based on the sRNA library of G. molesta, suitable reference genes were selected and validated for study of miRNA transcriptional profile in G. molesta under two biotic and six abiotic experimental conditions. This study systematically documented the miRNA profile in G. molesta, which could lay a foundation for further understanding of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the development and metabolism in this pest and might also suggest clues to the development of genetic-based techniques for agricultural pest control. PMID: 28158242 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  10. Related Articles Acne and Rosacea. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2017 Jan;7(Suppl 1):43-52 Authors: Picardo M, Eichenfield LF, Tan J Abstract Acne, one of the most common skin diseases, affects approximately 85% of the adolescent population, and occurs most prominently at skin sites with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. Although often considered a disease of teenagers, acne is occurring at an increasingly early age. Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by flushing (or transient facial erythema), persistent central facial erythema, inflammatory papules/pustules, and telangiectasia. Both acne and rosacea have a multifactorial pathology that is incompletely understood. Increased sebum production, keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, inflammation, and altered bacterial colonization with Propionibacterium acnes are considered to be the underlying disease mechanisms in acne, while the multifactorial pathology of rosacea is thought to involve both vasoactive and neurocutaneous mechanisms. Several advances have taken place in the past decade in the research field of acne and rosacea, encompassing pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as the development of new therapeutic interventions. In this article, we provide an overview of current perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of acne and rosacea, including a summary of findings from recent landmark pathophysiology studies considered to have important implications for future clinical practice. The advancement of our knowledge of the different pathways and regulatory mechanisms underlying acne and rosacea is thought to lead to further advances in the therapeutic pipeline for both conditions, ultimately providing a greater array of treatments to address gaps in current management practices. PMID: 28150107 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  11. Related Articles 9th Skin Academy Symposium: Building Bridges in Dermatology Chair's Introduction. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2017 Jan;7(Suppl 1):1-3 Authors: Blume-Peytavi U Abstract An introduction to the proceedings sharing an overview of presentations given as part of the 9th Skin Academy Symposium, held in Barcelona, Spain, April 9-10, 2016. The Skin Academy is an international and interdisciplinary dermatology initiative created to contribute to the growth in scientific knowledge of those dealing with skin diseases. This year's meeting aimed to 'build bridges' between the latest research and everyday clinical practice, providing dermatologists with important updates on some of the most common skin diseases, as well as current 'hot' topics. PMID: 28150110 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  12. Related Articles Four cases of Morbihan disease successfully treated with doxycycline. J Dermatol. 2017 Feb 02;: Authors: Okubo A, Takahashi K, Akasaka T Abstract Morbihan disease (MD) is rosacea-like disease characterized by persistent lymphedema on the upper half of the face. Currently, there is no established standard treatment for MD. Recently, MD has been reported to be associated with the infiltration of mast cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of treatment response and mast cell infiltration in MD. We report four cases of MD that were successfully treated with long-term oral doxycycline therapy. PMID: 28150340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  13. A case report of combination treatment with potassium-titanyl phosphate laser and brimonidine topical gel in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2017 Jan 31;: Authors: Hofmann MA, Kokolakis G Abstract Laser therapies have been shown to provide symptom improvement in patients with erythema and telangiectasia of rosacea; however, they are associated with side effects such as erythema. Combinatorial treatment with pharmacological agents and laser have demonstrated better efficacy, fewer side effects and continued long-term remission compared with monotherapies. A case of moderate facial erythema that responded well to combination treatment with brimonidine 3 mg/g gel and a treatment course of potassium-titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser therapy is presented, showing a reduction from baseline, maintained after final laser session, by applying brimonidine 3 mg/g gel daily. Using brimonidine 3 mg/g gel to target post-laser treatment erythema is highly effective in minimising refractory erythema. Continued use of brimonidine 3 mg/g gel provides a sustained reduction of erythema, increasing the visibility of other signs and symptoms of rosacea that may be present. This can facilitate the treatment of these additional signs and symptoms. MH performed assessments of the patient and contributed to drafting the manuscript. MH read and approved the final manuscript. GK has contributed to drafting the manuscript. GK read and approved the final manuscript. PMID: 28139145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  14. Related Articles Rosacea and risk of cancer in Denmark. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 Jan 26;47:76-80 Authors: Egeberg A, Fowler JF, Gislason GH, Thyssen JP Abstract BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common facial skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% among Caucasians. OBJECTIVE: We compared cancer incidence in patients previously diagnosed with rosacea with that in the general population. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population using individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens aged ≥18years were followed from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012. Patients with rosacea (the exposure) were compared with the general population, serving as control subjects. The outcome was a diagnosis of one of the following cancers: breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, kidney, malignant melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), pancreatic, hepatic, thyroid, esophageal, and lung cancer. Baseline prevalence of cancers were assessed, incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, and healthcare consumption were estimated by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 49,475 patients with rosacea and 4,312,213 subjects from the general population. There was no increased risk of malignant melanoma, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, esophageal, kidney, pancreatic, or thyroid cancer. However the risk of hepatic cancer (HR 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90), NMSC (HR 95% CI 1.36; 1.26-1.47), and breast cancer (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.15-1.36) was significantly increased, and the risk of incident lung cancer was significantly decreased (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.69-0.89). CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk of NMSC, breast cancer, and hepatic cancer, and a reduced risk of lung cancer, among patients with rosacea. These results are in contrast to the limited published data on cancers in rosacea, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the potential relationship between rosacea and various cancers. The findings add to the overall clinical description of patients with rosacea. PMID: 28131793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  15. Related Articles Sebaceous gland rich skin is characterized by TSLP expression and distinct immune surveillance which is disturbed in rosacea. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jan 25;: Authors: Dajnoki Z, Béke G, Kapitány A, Mócsai G, Gáspár K, Rühl R, Hendrik Z, Juhász I, Zouboulis CC, Bácsi A, Bíró T, Törőcsik D, Szegedi A Abstract The microbial community exhibits remarkable diversity on topographically distinct skin regions, which may be accompanied by differences in skin immune characteristics. Our aim was to compare the immune milieu of healthy sebaceous gland rich (SGR) and sebaceous gland poor (SGP) skin areas, and to analyze its changes in an inflammatory disease of SGR skin. For this purpose, immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other cytokines, phenotypic immune cell markers and transcription factors were carried out in samples from SGP, SGR skin and from papulopustular rosacea (PPR). TSLP mRNA and protein production was also studied in cultured keratinocytes. In SGR skin, higher TSLP expression, dendritic cell (DC) appearance without prominent activation and T cell presence with interleukin (IL)-17/IL-10 cytokine milieu were detected compared to SGP skin. Linoleic acid, a major sebum component, was found to induce TSLP expression dose-dependently in keratinocytes. In PPR, significantly decreased TSLP level and influx of inflammatory DCs and T cells with IL-17/interferon-γ cytokine milieu were observed. According to our results, SGR skin is characterized by a distinct, non-inflammatory immune surveillance, which may explain the preferred localization of inflammatory skin diseases, and can influence future barrier repair therapeutic concepts. PMID: 28131815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article