Jump to content
  • Sign Up
Sign in to follow this  
Admin

Cytokines and Rosacea

Recommended Posts

320px-Cytokine_release.jpg
3D medical animation still of Cytokines that are important in cell signaling. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Another cytokine is emerging as a possible link to rosacea, interleukin 17A (IL17A), with a report of using a biologic treatment for rosacea, secukinumab. [1] For several years the cytokine, cathlecidin, has been considered linked to rosacea because it is found in high levels with rosacea patients. [2] 

Cytokines
"Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides and cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Cytokines have been shown to be involved in autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents." [3] 

"Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research." [3]

Therefore, cytokines are important in health and in disease prevention and when working properly everything is fine. However, just like the hormone insulin, when in proper amount secreted it works like a charm. If you are too low on insulin or too high things get a bit tricky when it comes to health. The same is true with cytokines. Cytokines in the right amount, everything is hunky dory, but when too many are present it can create quite a storm, or if not enough, things can get worse. The theory is that cytokines need to be be investigated more in what role they play in rosacea inflammation. 

Cytokines and the Rosacea Immune System Disorder Theory
Cytokines are related to the theory that rosacea is an immune system disorder. [4] Mast cells have important effects on the pathogenesis of rosacea and produce cytokines.  

What is interesting is that "Cytokines also play a role in anti-inflammatory pathways and are a possible therapeutic treatment for pathological pain from inflammation or peripheral nerve injury. There are both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that regulate this pathway." [3] The first cytokine discovered was Interferon-alpha, an interferon type I, identified in 1957 as a protein that interfered with viral replication. [5]

Both interleukin 17A and cathlecidin are cytokines that are related to inflammation in disease. 

Topical ivermectin has been found effective in the treatment of T‐cell‐mediated skin inflammatory diseases. [6]

Could it be possible that the cytokine response in rosacea sufferers is somehow related to virus? [7] For over sixty years the focus has been on bacteria or demodex. Could it be that the investigation should focus more on virus as the culprit why the cytokines are reacting? Virus are so tiny that the bacteria or demodex may carry a pathogen virus that is triggering the cytokine response. Has anyone even looked into this?  Have you seen any paper that has ruled out virus in rosacea?

Magnesium decreases inflammatory cytokine production by modulation of the immune system. [8]

Cytokine storm is associated with Covid 19 deaths as well as with the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic. 

Interleukin 17A is an inflammatory cytokine. "Inflammatory cytokines are predominantly produced by and involved in the upregulation of inflammatory reactions.Excessive chronic production of inflammatory cytokines contribute to inflammatory diseases, that have been linked to different diseases...A balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is necessary to maintain health. Aging and exercise also play a role in the amount of inflammation from the release of proinflammatory cytokines." [9]

"Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) LL-37 and FALL-39 are polypeptides...serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection..." [2] "These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics which demonstrate potential as novel therapeutic agents.  Antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated to kill Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, enveloped viruses, fungi and even transformed or cancerous cells." [10] Dr. Gallo, et al, has applied for a patent, PREVENTION OF ROSACEA INFLAMMATION, United States Patent Application 20160030386, related to this. [11]

Without a doubt we will be learning more on further research with interleukin 17A (IL17A) and possible other cytokines that are involved in the inflammation of rosacea. 

Independent Rosacea Research
Could a group of rosacea sufferers in a non profit organization like the RRDi collectively get together and sponsor their own research on rosacea? For example, if 10K members each donated a dollar, could it be possible that this money could be used to sponsor their own independent rosacea research on a cytokine?  What do you think? If you want to do something about this read this post

End Notes

[1] Secukinumab (Cosentyx)

[2] Cathelicidin

[3] Cytokine, Wikipedia

[4] Innate Immune Response Disorder

[5] Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1957 Sep 12;147(927):258-67.  doi: 10.1098/rspb.1957.0048.
Virus interference. I. The interferon
A ISAACS, J LINDENMANN

[6] Ivermectin Anti-Inflammatory Properties

[7] Virus and Rosacea

[8] J Immunol. 2012 Jun 15;188(12):6338-46.  doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101765.  Epub 2012 May 18.
Magnesium decreases inflammatory cytokine production: a novel innate immunomodulatory mechanism
Jun Sugimoto, Andrea M Romani, Alice M Valentin-Torres, Angel A Luciano, Christina M Ramirez Kitchen, Nicholas Funderburg, Sam Mesiano, Helene B Bernstein

J Inflamm Res. 2018 Jan 18;11:25-34.  doi: 10.2147/JIR.S136742.  eCollection 2018.
Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives
Forrest H Nielsen 

[9] Inflammatory cytokine, Wikipedia

[10] Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Wikipedia

[11] Gallo Patent for the 'Prevention of Rosacea Inflammation'

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Sign in to follow this  

×
×
  • Create New...