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Botox Reduces LL-37-Induced Erythema


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"Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Cathelicidin is cleaved into the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by both kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 7 serine proteases. Excessive production of LL-37 is suspected to be a contributing cause in all subtypes of Rosacea. Antibiotics have been used in the past to treat rosacea, but antibiotics may only work because they inhibit some SCTEs." [1]

"In mice, injection of onabotulinum toxin A significantly reduced LL-37-induced skin erythema, mast cell degranulation, and mRNA expression of rosacea biomarkers...These findings suggest that onabotulinum toxin reduces rosacea-associated skin inflammation by directly inhibiting mast cell degranulation. Periodic applications of onabotulinum toxin may be an effective therapy for refractory rosacea and deserves further study." [2]

Botox has been used to treat rosacea for some time now. [3]

More information on Botox for Rosacea

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End Notes

[1] Cathlecidin, Wikipedia 

[2] J Dermatol Sci. 2019 Jan; 93(1): 58–64.Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 Nov 22.
Botulinum toxin blocks mast cells and prevents rosacea like inflammation
Jae Eun Choi, MD, Tyler Werbel, MS, Zhenping Wang, PhD, Chia Chi Wu, BS, Tony L. Yaksh, PhD, and Anna Di Nardo, MD, PhD

[3] Botox for Rosacea

Et cetera 


Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 and Vitamin D3

Hydroxychloroquine Suppresses LL37-induced Mast Cells

Alarmins, Vitamin D, And Other Info


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  • Root Admin
1 hour ago, Andrea Hernandez Nunez said:

How do they inject this? In muscle or subcutaneously ?

"Subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin A is equally effective in achieving paralysis of the underlying frontalis muscle as IM botulinum toxin A administration. In addition, the SC route may result in less pain to patients receiving botulinum toxin A injection for rejuvenation of the upper face."
JAMA Facial Plast Surg. May-Jun 2014;16(3):193-8. doi: 10.1001/jamafacial.2013.2458.
Subcutaneous vs intramuscular botulinum toxin: split-face randomized study
Eli A Gordin, Adam L Luginbuhl, Timothy Ortlip, Ryan N Heffelfinger, Howard Krein  

"The injections used during BOTOX treatments are administered both directly into the muscle (intramuscular) and into the area between the skin and the muscle (subcutaneous). These injections are felt as tiny pin pricks."
How BOTOX® Is Injected

"Ideally, Botox is administered directly into the desired muscle, making it an IM injection. However, Botox is often administered as a subcutaneous facial injection in the tissue overlying the target muscle, and diffusion of the neurotoxin into the underlying muscle produces the desired effect."
Injection: The Third Method of Drug Administration

"The most popular area of use for BOTOX® is the face. By relaxing different facial muscles – from the forehead to the neck – wrinkles can be minimised, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin."
Where on the Face Can BOTOX® Be Injected?

"But it differs from conventional Botox as it does not iron out wrinkles caused by muscle contractions.” That's right: Botox injected at the top layer of the skin works to control oil and redness while making pores appear smaller, which could mean fewer breakouts, but won't stamp out wrinkles."
“Microdosing” Is The New Botox Trend Spiking In New York & L.A.

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