J Inflamm Res. 2021 Jun 16;14:2569-2582. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S313636. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Sodium bituminosulfonate is derived from naturally occurring sulphur-rich oil shale and is used for the treatment of the inflammatory skin disease rosacea. Major molecular players in the development of rosacea include the release of enzymes that process antimicrobial peptides which, together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pro