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Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021 Sep 2. doi: 10.1007/s13555-021-00597-7. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by centrofacial erythema, papules, pustules, and telangiectasias. The onset of rosacea typically occurs after 30 years of age. It is estimated that approximately 2-5% of adults worldwide are affected. While the exact etiology of rosacea remains unknown, its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial with both environmental and genetic factors implicated. Ultraviolet radiation, heat, steam, ingested agents, including spicy foods and alcohol, host vasculature, dermal matrix degeneration, genetic susceptibility, and microbial organisms, including Demodex mites and Heliobacter pylori, have been implicated in the development of rosacea. Recently, mast cells (MCs) have emerged as key players in the pathogenesis of rosacea through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and antimicrobial peptides leading to cutaneous vasodilation, angiogenesis, and tissue fibrosis. Several existing and emerging topical, oral, and injectable therapeutics have been associated with improvement of rosacea symptoms based on their ability to stabilize and downregulate activated MCs. Herein, we review the data implicating MCs in the pathogenesis of rosacea and discuss interventions that may stabilize this pathway.

PMID:34476755 | DOI:10.1007/s13555-021-00597-7

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