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Am Fam Physician. 2024 Jun;109(6):533-542.


Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of the central face, affecting 5% of the population. The exact etiology is unknown. A diagnosis is made based on the updated 2017 National Rosacea Society Expert Committee guidelines, including fixed erythema, phymatous changes of skin thickening due to sebaceous gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, papules, pustules, telangiectasia, and flushing. Delays in an accurate diagnosis and treatment may occur in skin of color due to difficulty visualizing erythema and telangiectasia. The daily use of sunscreen, moisturizers, and mild skin cleansers and avoidance of triggers are essential aspects of maintenance treatment. Effective topical treatment options include alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists for flushing and ivermectin, metronidazole, and azelaic acid for papules and pustules. Systemic treatments include nonselective beta blockers for flushing, low-dose doxycycline, and isotretinoin for papules and pustules. Rosacea can significantly affect a patient's emotional health and quality of life. A referral for care is recommended for fixed phymatous changes and ocular rosacea. (Am Fam Physician. 2024;109(6):533-542.


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