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Botulinum toxin blocks mast cells and prevents rosacea like inflammation.

J Dermatol Sci. 2018 Dec 28;:

Authors: Choi JE, Werbel T, Wang Z, Wu CC, Yaksh TL, Di Nardo A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition whose etiology has been linked to mast cells and the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37. Individuals with refractory disease have demonstrated clinical benefit with periodic injections of onabotulinum toxin, but the mechanism of action is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular mechanism by which botulinum toxin improves rosacea lesions.
METHODS: Primary human and murine mast cells were pretreated with onabotulinum toxin A or B or control. Mast cell degranulation was evaluated by β-hexosaminidase activity. Expression of botulinum toxin receptor Sv2 was measured by qPCR. The presence of SNAP-25 and VAMP2 was established by immunofluorescence. In vivo rosacea model was established by intradermally injecting LL-37 with or without onabotulinum toxin A pretreatment. Mast cell degranulation was assessed in vivo by histologic counts. Rosacea biomarkers were analyzed by qPCR of mouse skin sections.
RESULTS: Onabotulinum toxin A and B inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of both human and murine mast cells. Expression of Sv2 was established in mouse mast cells. Onabotulinum toxin A and B increased cleaved SNAP-25 and decreased VAMP2 staining in mast cells respectively. In mice, injection of onabotulinum toxin A significantly reduced LL-37-induced skin erythema, mast cell degranulation, and mRNA expression of rosacea biomarkers.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that onabotulinum toxin reduces rosacea-associated skin inflammation by directly inhibiting mast cell degranulation. Periodic applications of onabotulinum toxin may be an effective therapy for refractory rosacea and deserves further study.

PMID: 30658871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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