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Virus and Rosacea

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Rotavirus image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Bacteria has been implicated in rosacea with a huge amount of clinical papers on this subject. Demodex is now without a doubt linked to a significant number of rosacea cases. At least one fungus has been associated with rosacea [1], and we have papers indicating treatment for one particular protozoa improves rosacea, however viruses have not been ruled out in rosacea, nor archea, for that matter. The human microbiome includes the skin which contains a number of different microbes.

Virus and Rosacea

There are very little clinical studies done on virus and rosacea. Viruses are in bacteria, fungus, and throughout the human body and comprise more weight in the human body than bacteria by a factor of ten times. [2]

There are scant few, if any, clinical papers on virus and rosacea. One theory on the cause of rosacea involves a disorder of the innate immune system [3] and one paper explains what happens: 

"Recognition of bacteria and viruses [bold added] initiates the inflammatory cascade involving the release of cytokines, recruitment of immune cells, and production of AMPs and ISGs. AMPs and ISGs represent one of the most important and robust immune mechanisms in the skin. However, pathogenic bacteria—such as S. aureus—and cutaneous viruses [bold added] have evolved mechanisms to counteract innate immune mechanisms."  [4]

Virus Associated with Rosacea

"Granulomatous rosacea has been reported in children as well as adults, and in association with infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)." [5] Herpes Simple, a virus, has been associated with granulomatous rosacea. [6]

"Two months after the beginning of the anti-retroviral treatment, the patient developed a progressively extending facial eruption resembling rosacea." [7]

Human Herpes Virus

There are four Human Herpes Virus known that may have implications with rosacea which should be considered. They are Varicella zoster virus (VZV) (HHV)-3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/ HHV- 4, Cytomegalovirus (CMV)/HHV-5, and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6). [8] If you are suffering with any of these viruses and also have rosacea you may want to ask your physician about antiviral treatment drugs. [8]

Bacteriophage

Scoll below for information on bacteriophage, a virus (third post). 

Anti-viral Treatments Shown Successful in Treating Rosacea

There are papers about treating rosacea with Acylovir

Hydroxychloroquine is a novel therapeutic approach for rosacea (see also the fifth post in the current thread you are reading now)

Imiquimod Cream [possible anti-viral treatment]  (read the fourth post in the current thread you are reading)

Conclusion

There are numerous clinical papers discussing the innate immune system reaction to rosacea and without a doubt, information about this subject enhances our knowledge on rosacea. However, because of a scientific bias towards bacteria ignoring virus (virus has ten times more weight in the human body than bacteria), this bias continues to influence and support more bacteria research on rosacea than researching virus. There needs to be more clinical studies done on virus and rosacea. Since virus has never been ruled out in causing rosacea, who would support such an investigation? Would you? Just think if 10K members of the RRDi each donated one dollar and insisted on supporting a reputable clinician to study virus and rosacea, what might be discovered? 

End Notes

[1] Candida Albicans

[2]

 Human Microbiome, Brady Barrows

[3] Immune System Disorder Theory

[4] PLoS Pathog. 2018 Dec; 14(12): e1007353.
Innate antimicrobial immunity in the skin: A protective barrier against bacteria, viruses, and fungi
Margaret Coates, Sarah Blanchard, and Amanda S. MacLeod
Deborah A. Hogan, Editor

[5] The granulomatous reaction pattern
David Weedon AO MD FRCPA FCAP(HON), in Weedon's Skin Pathology (Third Edition), 2010

[6] JAAD, January 2015Volume 72, Issue 1, Pages e36–e37
Granulomatous rosacea manifesting after herpes simplex 2 infection: A case of Wolf's isotopic response
Kaitlyn N. Mula, DO, Nicole M. Cassler, MD, Jeffrey N. Lackey, MD

[7] Dermatology 2002;205:394-397
Ivermectin-Responsive Demodex Infestation during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, A Case Report and Literature Review
C. Aquilina, R. Viraben, S. Sire

[8] The 4 Common Viruses That Can Trigger Thyroid, Autoimmune, and Brain Problems, Dr. Will Cole

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I am already onto it.Yes we must do research on this theme to know more about viruses in rosacea. Infact I have been talking to so many researchers who work on skin microbiome in infection and diseases and share my research ideas with them. It would be a good idea to do such research on fresh theme.

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Bacteriophage are a particular virus that are included in the human microbiome that "have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe as well as in France." Human Microbiome, Brady Barrows

Some researchers are trying to find foods that encourage bacteriophage to act as an antibiotic in the gut, for example, stevia, they say as the "most potent prophage inducer" and explains, "The ability to kill specific bacteria, without affecting others, makes these compounds very interesting."

"These findings are important. Scientists now know that the microbiome can influence our physical and mental health; it can also cause inflammation and increase cancer risk. If scientists can work out how to alter the microbiome in specific ways, they can, in theory, remove or reduce these risks."

Common foods alter gut bacteria by influencing viruses, MedicalNewsToday

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Imiquimod-cream-5-for-genital-warts_1024x1024.jpg

Mosquitoes and Virus and Imiquimod Cream

As noted in the post on Protozoa and Rosacea, treatment for malaria [protozoa] has improved some cases of rosacea using mepacrine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. An article published in Science Daily [1] points out, "There are hundreds of viruses spread by biting mosquitoes which can infect humans...At present, there are no anti-viral medicines and few vaccines to help combat these infections." The article discusses using a skin cream with the active ingredient imiquimod and reports, "By applying skin cream after a bite, researchers found that they could pre-emptively activate the immune system's inflammatory response before the virus becomes a problem. The cream encouraged a type of immune cell in the skin, called a macrophage, to suddenly spring into action to fight off the virus before it could spread around the body."

Wouldn't it be novel for 10K RRDi members to get together and each donate a dollar and then sponsor a clinical researcher to investigate if using imiquimod as the active ingredient might improve rosacea?  Do you think any pharmaceutical company or other rosacea non profit organization would ever investigate this? How do you get 10K RRDi members to come together and  all agree that this should be done? 

Maybe we might learn that some rosaceans somehow apply this imiquimod cream by diluting it with a moisturizer, coconut oil, shea butter, or something to see if this improves their rosacea. If so, then possibly, as this thread points out, could a virus be connected to rosacea?  

End Notes 
[1] Mosquito-borne diseases could be prevented by skin cream, Science Daily

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The president announced today that hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) has been approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19. As mentioned in the initial post in this thread, virus has never been ruled out in rosacea. CNN has a followup report on this

There is a paper that indicates using Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat rosacea "exerted satisfactory therapeutic effects on erythema and inflammatory lesions of rosacea patients, indicating that it is a promising drug for rosacea in clinical treatment." Duff Man told us about this a while back that it worked for him

Wouldn't it be incredible if any rosaceans who are treated with hydroxycholoroquine for COVID-19 also discovered that their rosacea improves or clears up! Is virus involved in rosacea?  If you do take hydroxycholoroquine and your rosacea improves, please let us know.

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