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  1. Related ArticlesIntense Pulsed Light Pulse Configuration Manipulation Can Resolve the Classic Conflict Between Safety and Efficacy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015 Nov 1;14(11):1255-60 Authors: Belenky I, Tagger C, Bingham A Abstract The widely used intense pulse light (IPL) technology was first commercially launched to the medical market in 1994 and similar to lasers, is based on the basic principle of selective photothermolysis. The main conflict during treatments with light-based technologies is between safety and efficacy of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate new IPL technology, which integrates three different pulse configurations, with specific attention on the safety and efficacy of the treatment. 101 volunteers (with Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI) were treated as follows: 9 patients underwent 8 bi-weekly acne clearance treatments, 51 patients underwent 6-12 hair removal treatments, 11 patients were treated for general skin rejuvenation, 15 patients were treated for pigmentation lesions, and 15 patients were treated for vascular lesions. No serious adverse events were recorded. All patients that were treated for hair removal achieved significant hair clearance. The patients with facial rosacea responded the fastest to the treatment. Eight of nine patients that were treated for acne clearance achieved significant reduction in acne appearance. The results represented in this study support the approach that when taking into consideration both efficacy of the treatment and safety of the patients, the system should be "flexible" enough to allow exact treatment settings profile for each patient, according to their skin type and the symptom's biophysical characteristics.<BR /><BR /> <em>J Drugs Dermatol</em>. 2015;14(11):1255-1260. PMID: 26580874 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  2. Related ArticlesExpanding the Clinical Application of Fractional Radiofrequency Treatment: Findings on Rhytides, Hyperpigmentation, Rosacea, and Acne Redness. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015 Nov 1;14(11):1298-304 Authors: Hongcharu W, Gold M Abstract While radiofrequency has been used medically for decades to treat a wide variety of conditions, its use therapeutically to target conditions affecting the skin is relatively new. With the development of fractional radiofrequency, which allows for the heat energy to be delivered in a more targeted manner through the use of needles as electrodes, this technique is now the preferred medical treatment option for many skin conditions given the reduction in recovery time and fewer number of reported side effects. The current study examined the clinical effectiveness of SmartScanTM Nano-Fractional RFTM treatment. Participants included 12 healthy female volunteers who reported varying degrees of rhytides, hyperpigmentation, or acne redness. Participants each received one treatment of SmartScan Nano-Fractional RF. The areas receiving treatment were photographed in a standardized way, using high-resolution macrophotography, at baseline (prior to receiving the treatment) and one month after treatment. Baseline and post-treatment photographs were then visually compared for treatment effects and analyzed through software-assisted quantification of variation in pigmentation and skin texture. The results indicated that this SmartScan technique for Nano-Fractional RF is effective in improving skin texture, and pigmentation.<br /><br /> <em>J Drugs Dermatol</em>. 2015;14(11):1298-1304. PMID: 26580880 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  3. Related ArticlesMorbihan disease and extrafacial lupus miliaris disseminatus faceie: a case report. Ann Saudi Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;34(4):351-3 Authors: Kou K, Chin K, Matsukura S, Sasaki T, Nozawa A, Aihara M, Kambara T Abstract Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is characterized by discrete dome-shaped papules on the bilateral face and neck. We report the first case of LMDF with a widespread distribution of extrafacial papules and concomitant bilateral eyelid edema. A unique case of a 30-year-old man presented with nonpruritic, painless, papular eruptions (3-5 mm in diameter) involving the bilateral trunk and upper extremities, along with bilateral eyelid edema. There was no facial eruption involved. The outbreak initially involved the back, and gradually spread to the chest and wrists. The histologic examination of the eyelids revealed histiocytic epitheloid cells, dermal intercellular edema, and an expanded vascular space, which led to the diagnosis of Morbihan disease. The immunohistochemical staining of the truncal eruption revealed nodular inflammatory changes involving the middle to lower dermis around the follicles, containing histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, and small lymphocytes. This led to the diagnosis of LMDF. The truncal papular eruption ultimately improved with roxithromycin treatment, but the eyelid edema required surgical treatment. PMID: 25811210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] {url} = URL to article
  4. Related ArticlesIvermectin cream for rosacea. Drug Ther Bull. 2015 Nov;53(11):129-31 Authors: Abstract Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies. PMID: 26563877 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  5. Related ArticlesSubantimicrobial-dose doxycycline monohydrate in dermatology. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2015 Nov 13; Authors: Wollina U Abstract Subantimicrobial doxycycline is an anti-inflammatory drug that decreases cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical trials demonstrated a comparable efficacy to 100-mg doxycycline in papulopustular rosacea with improvement of inflammatory lesions, quality of life, and improved safety profile. Case series and case reports suggested efficacy in other inflammatory skin diseases. The response of papulopustular rash during targeted anticancer therapies is mixed. Further studies are needed. PMID: 26564206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  6. Related ArticlesThe role of brimonidine tartrate gel in the treatment of rosacea. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015;8:529-38 Authors: Jackson JM, Knuckles M, Minni JP, Johnson SM, Belasco KT Abstract Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous condition with a prevalence rate ranging from 9.6% to 22% in recent studies. Facial erythema (transient and permanent) is considered a common denominator that is frequently observed in all subtypes of rosacea and is estimated to affect more than 40 million people worldwide. Brimonidine tartrate is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist and is the first topical treatment approved for facial erythema of rosacea. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brimonidine tartrate provided significantly greater efficacy, compared to vehicle, for the treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea. In addition, brimonidine tartrate has demonstrated a rapid onset of effect, duration of action throughout the day, and good safety profile in studies of up to 1 year. This review critically discusses the role of brimonidine tartrate for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea by examining both clinical study data and real-world dermatologist experiences across a wide spectrum of treated patients, and concludes that it is a significant therapeutic option in the management of an unmet need of this chronic condition. PMID: 26566370 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
  7. Related ArticlesRosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015 Oct;8(10):30-4 Authors: Alinia H, Lan L, Kuo S, Huang KE, Taylor SL, Feldman SR Abstract BACKGROUND: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors' aim was to understand rosacea patients' perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. METHOD: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. RESULTS: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified-motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. CONCLUSION: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID: 26557217 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
  8. Related ArticlesThe use of facial modeling and analysis to objectively quantify facial redness. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2015 Nov 4; Authors: Foolad N, Prakash N, Shi VY, Kamangar F, Wang Q, Li CS, Sivamani RK Abstract BACKGROUND: The reproducible evaluation of facial redness is critical to the assessment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Assessments have typically focused on the use of photography with the use of semi-quantitative grading scales based on evaluator rating. However, few studies have utilized computer-based algorithms to evaluate facial redness. AIM: The purpose of this clinical study was to assess whether there is correlation between clinical grading of facial redness to the assessment of a quantitative computer-based facial modeling and measurement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, a set of high-resolution facial photographs and cross-polarized subsurface photographs for erythema detection were obtained for 31 study participants. A computer algorithm was then utilized to detect and quantify facial redness in the photographs and compare this to semi-quantitative evaluator-based grading for facial redness. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between computer-based cross-polarized subsurface erythema quantification and clinical grading for redness intensity (Clinical Erythema Assessment), redness distribution, and overall redness severity (Modified Clinical Erythema Assessment). CONCLUSION: Overall, facial redness measurements by facial imaging and computer analysis correlated well to clinical grading scales for both redness intensity and distribution. Future studies should incorporate facial modeling and analysis tools for assessments in clinical studies to introduce greater objectivity and quantitative analysis in facial erythema-based analyses. PMID: 26534767 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  9. Related ArticlesA new surgical technique of rhinophyma (gull-wing technique). J Craniofac Surg. 2015 Jan;26(1):e28-30 Authors: Karacor-Altuntas Z, Dadaci M, Ince B, Altuntas M Abstract A variety of surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of rhinophyma. A case of severe rhinophyma was operated with a new surgical technique. The full-thickness excision was combined with the gull-wing incision in this technique. The patient was very satisfied with the result. PMID: 25565234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] {url} = URL to article
  10. Related ArticlesRosacea Blepharoconjunctivitis Treated with a Novel Preparation of Dilute Povidone Iodine and Dimethylsulfoxide: a Case Report and Review of the Literature. Ophthalmol Ther. 2015 Nov 2; Authors: Pelletier JS, Stewart KP, Capriotti K, Capriotti JA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Povidone iodine (PVP-I) 10% aqueous solution is a commonly utilized anti-septic employed for sterilization of the ocular surface prior to interventional procedures. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is a well-known skin penetration agent scarcely utilized in ophthalmic drug formulations. We describe here a low-dose formulation of 1% PVP-I (w/w) in a gel containing DMSO for use in the setting of recalcitrant rosacea blepharoconjunctivitis. A review of the ocular uses of dimethylsulfoxide is also presented. CASE REPORT: A 78-year-old male presented with chronic, long-standing blepharitis involving both the anterior and posterior lid margins. Posterior lid and skin inflammatory changes were consistent with ocular rosacea. Previous oral and topical therapies had been largely ineffective at controlling his condition. CONCLUSION: The topical PVP-I/DMSO system was effective in abating the signs and symptoms of rosacea blepharoconjunctivitis. Further investigation of this novel agent is warranted. PMID: 26525679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  11. Related ArticlesPrognosis of 234 rosacea patients according to clinical subtype: The significance of central facial erythema in the prognosis of rosacea. J Dermatol. 2015 Oct 28; Authors: Lee WJ, Lee YJ, Lee MH, Won CH, Chang SE, Choi JH, Lee MW Abstract Rosacea has a wide spectrum of clinical features, which include persistent facial redness, flushing, telangiectasia, inflammatory papules/pustules, hypertrophy and/or ocular features. The prognosis of rosacea according to clinical subtype has not been evaluated. We analyzed the prognosis of rosacea in 234 patients, which included 120 patients with mixed subtype, 75 with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea subtype and 39 with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. The prognosis of rosacea was classified as: (i) no improvement; (ii) partial remission; and (iii) complete remission. The frequencies of complete remission, time to complete remission and 1-year complete remission rate were compared between subtypes. Follow-up periods ranged 2-72 months (median follow-up, 17.5). Aggravation of the disease was found in 50.4% of patients during follow up. Partial or complete remission was noted in 61.5% and 20.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to complete remission was 56.0 months. The prognosis of disease was more favorable for patients with the PPR subtype than for patients with other subtypes with respect to the frequency of complete remission, median time to complete remission and the 2-year complete remission rate. In conclusion, papulopustular rosacea without remarkable centrofacial erythema showed a more favorable prognosis than other subtypes. Erythematotelangiectatic lesions in rosacea patients present a challenge for the treatment of rosacea. PMID: 26507367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  12. Related ArticlesPhotoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars. J Dermatol Case Rep. 2015 Sep 30;9(3):87-8 Authors: Reinholz M, Heppt M, Tietze JK, Ruzicka T, Gauglitz GG, Schauber J Abstract Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID: 26512307 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
  13. Related ArticlesTear Osmolarity and Tear Film Parameters in Patients With Ocular Rosacea. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Oct 27; Authors: Karaman Erdur S, Eliacik M, Kocabora MS, Balevi A, Demirci G, Ozsutcu M, Gulkilik G, Aras C Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with ocular rosacea. METHODS: In a single center, 25 eyes of 25 patients with ocular rosacea (group 1), 25 eyes of 25 patients with rosacea without ocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. RESULTS: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). Schirmer I test and TBUT in group 1 were significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). There were no significant differences in OSDI, Schirmer I test, TBUT, Oxford scores, or tear osmolarity between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.629, P=0.175, P=0.713, P=865, and P=0.388, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that ocular rosacea is associated with tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction. PMID: 26513720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  14. Related ArticlesExtreme Eyelid Lymphedema Associated with Rosacea (Morbihan Disease): Case Series, Literature Review, and Therapeutic Considerations. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Oct 26; Authors: Carruth BP, Meyer DR, Wladis EJ, Bradley EA, Al-Rohil R, Jones DM, Bartley GB Abstract PURPOSE: To describe severe lymphedema of the eyelids, known as Morbihan disease, a previously characterized but infrequently reported and poorly understood entity related to rosacea that features solid mid-facial and eyelid lymphedema. METHODS: Retrospective chart review, histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis, and pertinent literature consideration. RESULTS: Five cases of Morbihan disease were identified. Histopathologic examination revealed pleomorphic perivascular and perilymphatic inflammation with profound lymphangiectasis and lymph stasis, thus suggesting elements of both rosacea and localized, chronic lymphedema. Multiple therapeutic interventions were performed including systemic anti-inflammatory therapy, surgical debulking, and corticosteroid injection. CONCLUSIONS: Extreme eyelid edema associated with characteristic skin changes and histopathologic findings represents an entity known as Morbihan disease which is rare and difficult to treat. While multiple modalities have been employed with variable results, future therapeutic considerations may include the use of targeted biologic agents. PMID: 26505236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  15. Related ArticlesThe Use of the PlasmaBlade and Acellular Dermal Matrix in Rhinophyma Surgery: A Case Report. J Cutan Med Surg. 2015 Oct 22; Authors: Özkan A, Topkara A, Özcan RH, Şentürk S Abstract BACKGROUND: Rhinophyma is a rare, disfiguring disease characterized by a slow progressive overgrowth of the soft tissue of the nose associated with end-stage severe acne rosacea. OBJECTIVE: We present a case of severe rhinophyma treated successfully using PlasmaBlade and acellular dermal matrix with split-thickness skin graft. METHODS: This procedure combines deep excision with PlasmaBlade followed by coverage with an acellular dermal matrix for dermal substitution and split-thickness skin graft. RESULTS: Functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. CONCLUSION: We offer a new approach to surgical treatment of rhinophyma. Total excision of phymatous tissue and single session replacement of epidermal-dermal components is an effective treatment for patients with severe rhinophyma, resulting in satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcome. This combined treatment modality prevents the recurrence of rhinophyma. It should be considered an appropriate alternative in cases of severe rhinophyma. PMID: 26492919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  16. Related ArticlesCombination of new multifunctional molecules for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea disorder. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015;8:501-10 Authors: Chajra H, Nadim M, Auriol D, Schweikert K, Lefevre F Abstract BACKGROUND: Rosacea, a common chronic skin disorder, is currently managed by patient education, pharmacological drugs, medical devices (laser and light therapies), and use of proper skin cares. Unfortunately, none of these actual treatments used alone or in combination is curative, and so we proposed a dermocosmetic active ingredient to mitigate some aspects of the rosacea and particularly for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. METHODS: Dermocosmetic active ingredient is composed of three glucosylated derivatives of natural plants hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids (rosmarinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid). Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-degranulation studies were done on cellular models (keratinocytes, mast cells, and endothelial cells). Efficiency of the active ingredient in comparison to placebo was assessed clinically on human volunteers having erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. The active and placebo were applied topically twice a day for 28 days. Biometrical analyses were done using a siascope tool. RESULTS: We found that the active ingredient decreases inflammation (inhibition of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor release), decreases degranulation of mast cells (inhibition of histamine release), and controls angiogenesis mechanism (inhibition of the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and neovessel formation) on cellular models. Study on human volunteers confirmed macroscopically the efficiency of this active ingredient, as we observed no neovessel formation and less visible vessels. CONCLUSION: Although rosacea is a skin condition disorder that is difficult to heal, the studies have shown that this active ingredient could be a dermocosmetic support, especially for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea armamentarium. The active ingredient was topically applied on the face for 28 days and improved erythematotelangiectatic rosacea symptoms either by decreasing them (vessels are less visible) or by limiting their development (any neovessels). The active ingredient decreases inflammation (inhibition of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor release), decreases degranulation of mast cells (inhibition of histamine release), and limits the angiogenesis process (inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neovessel formation). PMID: 26491365 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
  17. Related Articles[Eye redness: think of rosacea]. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;21:77 Authors: Charhi O, Daoudi R PMID: 26491520 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  18. Kaposi's Varicelliform Eruption During Long-term Treatment of Rosacea with 0.03% Tacrolimus Ointment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015 20th Oct;128(20):2833-2834 Authors: Chen QQ, Chen WC, Niu J, Shi XW, Chen XH, Hao F PMID: 26481759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  19. Related ArticlesThe effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on skin and skin-related diseases: a message from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Task Force. Int J Dermatol. 2015 Oct 15; Authors: Andersen LK, Davis MD Abstract The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex climate phenomenon occurring in the Pacific Ocean at intervals of 2-7 years. The term refers to fluctuations in ocean temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño [the warm phase of ENSO] and La Niña [the cool phase of ENSO]) and in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific basin (Southern Oscillation). This weather pattern is attributed with causing climate change in certain parts of the world and is associated with disease outbreaks. The question of how ENSO affects skin and skin-related disease is relatively unanswered. We aimed to review the literature describing the effects of this complex weather pattern on skin. El Niño has been associated with increases in the occurrence of actinic keratosis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, miliaria, folliculitis, rosacea, dermatitis by Paederus irritans and Paederus sabaeus, and certain vector-borne and waterborne diseases, such as dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, Barmah Forest virus, and leptospirosis, and with decreases in the occurrence of dermatitis, scabies, psoriasis, and papular urticaria. La Niña has been associated with increases in the occurrence of varicella, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and Ross River virus (in certain areas), and decreases in viral warts and leishmaniasis. Reports on the effects of ENSO on skin and skin-related disease are limited, and more studies could be helpful in the future. PMID: 26471012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  20. Related ArticlesSebocytes differentially express and secrete adipokines. Exp Dermatol. 2015 Oct 17; Authors: Kovács D, Lovászi M, Póliska S, Oláh A, Bíró T, Veres I, Zouboulis CC, Ståhle M, Rühl R, Remenyik É, Törőcsik D Abstract In addition to producing sebum, sebocytes link lipid metabolism with inflammation at a cellular level and hence, greatly resemble adipocytes. However, so far no analysis was performed to identify and characterize the adipocyte-associated inflammatory proteins, the members of the adipokine family in sebocytes. Therefore, we determined the expression profile of adipokines (adiponectin, interleukin [IL] 6, resistin, leptin, serpin E1, visfatin, apelin, chemerin, retinol-binding protein 4 [RBP4] and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP1]) in sebaceous glands of healthy and various disease-affected (acne, rosacea, melanoma and psoriasis) skin samples. Sebaceous glands in all examined samples expressed adiponectin, IL6, resistin, leptin, serpin E1 and visfatin, but not apelin, chemerin, RBP4 and MCP1. Confirming the presence of the detected adipokines in the human SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line we further characterized their expression and secretion patterns under different stimuli mimicking bacterial invasion (by using Toll-like receptor [TLR] 2 and 4 activators), or by 13-cis retinoic acid (13CRA; also known as isotretinoin), a key anti-acne agent. With the exception of resistin, the expression of all of the detected adipokines (adiponectin, IL6, leptin, serpin E1 and visfatin) could be further regulated at the level of gene expression, showing a close correlation with the secreted protein levels. Besides providing further evidence on similarities between adipocytes and sebocytes, our results strongly suggest that sebocytes are not simply targets of inflammation but may exhibit initiatory and modulatory roles in the inflammatory processes of the skin through the expression and secretion of adipokines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26476096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  21. Related ArticlesTopical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists. Med Clin North Am. 2015 Nov;99(6):1167-82 Authors: Jewell JR, Myers SA Abstract Topical medications are the foundation upon which dermatologic care is built. The proper use of topical therapeutics requires consideration of the active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and medication quantity. This article provides a concise but non-comprehensive list of topical medications used for acne, rosacea, psoriasis, actinic keratoses, and non-melanoma skin cancers. Common treatment regimens and pitfalls in prescribing topicals are discussed via clinical vignettes. PMID: 26476246 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  22. Related ArticlesHistopathological Analysis of 226 Patients With Rosacea According to Rosacea Subtype and Severity. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015 Oct 12; Authors: Lee WJ, Jung JM, Lee YJ, Won CH, Chang SE, Choi JH, Moon KC, Lee MW Abstract BACKGROUND: The histopathological features of rosacea have not been described in detail. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathological features of rosacea according to clinical characteristics such as subtype and severity. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed histopathological findings in 226 patients with rosacea, which included 52 patients with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) and 174 patients with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. The frequency of each histopathological finding was compared between subtypes. Histopathological features were also compared according to the severity, through subgroup analysis within each subtype group. RESULTS: Perivascular and perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltration were common dermal findings in both subtype groups, but the intensity of dermal inflammatory infiltration was higher in PPR than in ETR. Follicular spongiosis and exocytosis of inflammatory cells into hair follicles were noted in both subtypes; but these findings were significantly more common in the PPR subtype. Vascular changes (telangiectasia and proliferation) and solar elastosis were common histopathological findings in both subtypes, with no difference in frequency between subtype groups. Demodex mites were identified in about 40% of patients, and the frequency of demodex mites did not differ between subtype groups. The intensity of perifollicular inflammation and the presence of follicular inflammatory reactions were dependent on the severity of rosacea in both subtype groups. CONCLUSIONS: The intensity of inflammatory reactions, especially perifollicular infiltration, was higher in PPR patients than in ETR patients. Rosacea has a spectrum of histopathological features that are related to clinical progression between rosacea subtypes. PMID: 26460622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  23. Related ArticlesTopical Treatment With Liposomal Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Redness and Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea: Case Studies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015 Oct 1;14(10):1157-9 Authors: Vasily DB Abstract Physicians are often presented with patients complaining of facial redness and difficult to control rosacea. The water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin complex has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities in vitro and anti-redness, pore reduction, and anti-acne activities in pilot clinical studies. In these case studies, the safety and efficacy of a topical gel containing a liposomal suspension of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was assessed in subjects with facial redness and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. <br /><br /> <em>J Drugs Dermatol.</em> 2015;14(10):1157-1159. PMID: 26461829 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
  24. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel. Dermatol Online J. 2015;21(9) Authors: Abokwidir M, Fleischer AB Abstract Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID: 26437294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
  25. Related ArticlesActivation of Neutrophils via IP3 Pathway Following Exposure to Demodex-Associated Bacterial Proteins. Inflammation. 2015 Oct 3; Authors: McMahon F, Banville N, Bergin DA, Smedman C, Paulie S, Reeves E, Kavanagh K Abstract Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face. Sera from rosacea patients display elevated reactivity to proteins from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) originally isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient suggesting a possible role for bacteria in the induction and persistence of this condition. This work investigated the ability of B. oleronius proteins to activate neutrophils and demonstrated activation via the IP3 pathway. Activated neutrophils displayed increased levels of IP1 production, F-actin formation, chemotaxis, and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 following stimulation by pure and crude B. oleronius protein preparations (2 μg/ml), respectively. In addition, neutrophils exposed to pure and crude B. oleronius proteins (2 μg/ml) demonstrated increased release of internally stored calcium (Ca(2+)), a hallmark of the IP3 pathway of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils play a significant role in the inflammation associated with rosacea, and this work demonstrates how B. oleronius proteins can induce neutrophil recruitment and activation. PMID: 26433579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
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