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    No one really knows the cause of rosacea but there are many theories. "Rosacea is a skin disease with an obscure and complicated pathogenesis." [1]

    The current most popular theory is that rosacea is a disorder of the innate immune system. For over twenty years the vascular theory was held as the most promising. What is interesting is at the heart of the innate immune system theory is that this includes an overproduction of cathelicidin (a killer of microscopic organisms that is at the cellular level found in white blood cells and also found in cells on the skin) which is transported in the vascular system, so we have come full circle. Some consider the nervous system as the root cause of rosacea, and the list goes on with many other theories worth considering (the latest theory is the Trigeminal sensory malfunction theory) but a good place to start your research is our post on Theories Revisited

    End Notes

    [1] Dovepress
    Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks
    Elizabeth Lazaridou, Chrysovalantis Korfitis, Christina Kemanetzi, Elena Sotiriou, Zoe Apalla, Efstratios Vakirlis, Christina Fotiadou, Aimilios Lallas, Demetrios Ioannides

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    • Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) Laser Resurfacing Restores Normal Function and Cosmesis in Patients with Severe Rhinophyma. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2019 Jul;12(7):28-33 Authors: Mathis J, Ibrahim SF Abstract Background: Rhinophyma is a dermatologic condition that can lead to severe disfiguration and psychological distress. Many therapies, both medical and surgical, have been reported, but few with acceptable and reproducible cosmesis. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser resurfacing as a treatment modality for rhinophyma of all degrees. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eleven Caucasian male patients were classified into categories of mild, moderate, or severe rhinophyma and were treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center with a dual mode Er:YAG fully ablative laser. Measurements: Severity was graded as mild, moderate, or severe, based on the degree of distortion of normal anatomy. Results: The Er:YAG laser allowed for increased ablative precision, a decreased risk of complications, shorter downtime, and improved outcomes compared to currently available treatments. Conclusion: Our results suggest Er:YAG laser resurfacing is an effective treatment modality, with low risk and excellent, reproducible cosmetic outcomes, for patients with rhinophyma of any severity. PMID: 31531160 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
    • Recognizing Rosacea: Tips on Differential Diagnosis J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Sep 01;18(9):888-894 Authors: Johnson SM, Berg A, Barr C Abstract Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis with a variety of clinical manifestations. Rosacea primarily affects the central face, and includes papules, pustules, erythema, telangiectasias, perilesional redness, phymatous changes, and even ocular involvement. Symptoms may vary among different patients and even vary over time in an individual patient. Central facial redness affects many adults and can be an indicator of the chronic inflammatory disease rosacea. Rosacea is a clinical diagnosis based on the patient’s history, physical examination, and exclusion of other disorders. It is under-diagnosed, particularly in individuals with skin of color. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians with the tools and understanding needed to correctly identify rosacea and differentiate it from other conditions that have overlapping signs and symptoms. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(9):888-894 PMID: 31524344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
    • Anti-Inflammatory Dose Doxycycline Plus Adapalene 0.3% and Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel for Severe Acne J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Sep 01;18(9):924-927 Authors: Kircik LH Abstract Acne is primarily an inflammatory disease. Anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40mg: 30mg immediate release and 10mg delayed release beads) is approved for the treatment of rosacea but with demonstrated efficacy for acne. Fixed combination adapalene 0.3% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is a once-daily formulation approved for the topical management of acne vulgaris. It has both anti-inflammatory and anti-comedogenic properties. Options for management of severe acne are somewhat limited; many patients are not candidates for or refuse treatment with isotretinoin. Systemic antibiotics may be indicated; acne treatment guidelines emphasize antibiotic stewardship in light of increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance and call for the judicious use of conventional systemic antibiotics. This single-center, open label pilot study involving 20 subjects with severe acne assessed the effects of combination treatment using anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline plus adapalene 0.3% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on IGA scores as well as inflammatory lesion, non-inflammatory lesion, and nodule counts. By week 12, 95% of subjects had at least a 2-grade improvement in IGA scores. Reductions in inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts were statistically significant beginning at week 4 and continuing through week 12. By week 4, the percentage of patients with 0 nodules was 70%, compared to baseline of 20%. Further improvements were seen through week 12. Treatment was well-tolerated with no serious treatment-related adverse events. Combination treatment with anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline plus combination adapalene 0.3% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is safe and effective for management of severe acne. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(9):924-927. PMID: 31524349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
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