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    • There are several acne treatments used to treat rosacea, i.e., Dapsone, Sarecycline, Azithromycin, Minocycline, and the list continues, not to mention the plethora of over the counter acne treatments to consider. A typical example of an acne treatment, Benzaclin, that is also used to treat rosacea is discussed in the following paper:  “Based on the theory that rosacea shares the same inflammatory features of acne, a recent study showed that, just as the combination of benzoyl peroxide 1 percent and clindamycin 5 percent gel is a powerful treatment modality for reducing Propionibacterium acnes levels, it also significantly reduces the papules and pustules of rosacea, according to Debra L. Breneman, M.D..… ‘Benzaclin, once daily, was found to be well tolerated and effective in the reduction of papules and pustules in patients with rosacea,’ said Dr. Breneman. ‘This lends credence to the theory that P. acnes is a potential aggravating factor in rosacea. This gives dermatologists a very effective treatment for rosacea.’ ” [1] Herbal Extracts for Acne  One report on the 'clinical efficacy of herbal extracts in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris' concludes, "This herbal extracts can be a new therapeutic option for patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who are reluctant to use drugs." [2]  The herbal extracts include: Mangosteen extract Lithospermum officinale extract Tribulus terrestris L. extract Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract End Notes [1] Dermatology Times Publish date: Apr 1, 2003 P. Acnes Possible Factor in Rosacea BenzaClin a significant Tx in lesion reduction Beth Kapes Another example similar to above paper discussing topical benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% (BP/C) gel (BenzaClin) concluded, "These results showed that BP/C was significantly more effective than vehicle in improving papules and pustules associated with rosacea.' Cutis. 2004 Jun;73(6 Suppl):11-7. Photographic review of results from a clinical study comparing benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% topical gel with vehicle in the treatment of rosacea. Leyden JJ, Thiboutot D, Shalita A. [2] J Dermatolog Treat. 2019 Oct 16:1-5. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1657792. [Epub ahead of print] Clinical efficacy of herbal extracts in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris: an 8-week, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Yang JH, Hwang EJ, Moon J, Yoon JY, Kim JW, Choi S, Cho SI, Suh DH.
    • image courtesy of WikiMedia Commons The RRDi financial situation is continuously posted at this url and as of this date, March 30, 2020, we have $771.42 in the bank. Based upon how we are spending donations (the income includes the small amount of affiliate fees we receive from Amazon) we will run out of funds in several months. So we are concerned about this and decided to first post this on our website before using the newsletter tool and send this same announcement to the members who have opted to receive our newsletter. You may wonder how much we are spending in donations currently and for the first three months of 2020 we averaged our expenses to $164/month. You can view how we spent donations for last year here. So you can see our current funds will only last us several months at the present rate of expenditure.  So let's compare this with how much money the NRS spends its donations (who is one of the other non profit organizations for rosacea). The only way we can get an idea how the NRS spends its donations is to look at the last financial report filed by the NRS as shown on Form 990 that the NRS files with the Internal Revenue Service for 2018 which is available for public viewing (the NRS releases its 2019 Form 990 much later and when it does we always review it since we have been reviewing how the NRS spends its donations since 1998).  So let's compare how the NRS spends it donations, that is, the amount each month is spent with what the RRDi spends each month.  For 2018, the NRS received in donations a total of $465,042. During this same period the NRS spent a total of $601,532 (yes the NRS can spend more than it takes in because of the assets they own which the NRS draws upon when the expenses are greater than donations). So on average, in 2018 the NRS spent over $50,000 each month! What did the NRS spend most of it donations on? The answer if you investigate is $432,408 was spent for the year (over $36,000 each month on average) on two private contractors owned by the director/president of the NRS, Sam Huff. So if you are happy with how the NRS is spending its donations that is just one of the other non profit organizations for rosacea that will continue if the RRDi runs out of funds and can't pay our monthly expenses.  So the comparison is: RRDi spends                           NRS spends $164/month                           $50,000/month (of this amount $36,000 is spent on two private contractors owned by Sam Huff) Just for the record, the NRS claims on its Form 990 for 2018 that 25.31% of the total donations received in 2018 were from public support. What is one of the most interesting revelations found on the from its Form 990 for 2018 report is that it reveals how much money was received from the pharmaceutical companies which is shown in a screen shot below: The above screen shot doesn't reveal for how long a period each of the above pharmaceutical companies have been giving the NRS 'excess contributions' but it does reveal the amounts. So if you are happy the way these pharmaceutical companies are contributing to the NRS and the way the NRS is spending its contributions and if the RRDi runs out of funds to keep going, you will surely have the NRS since it has lots of money to spend, especially on two private contractors owned by Sam Huff, the director/president of the NRS.  So it is simply up to you whether you want the RRDi to keep going or simply dissolve because of lack of funds. If you want to help out the RRDi there are two options, (1) donate, or, (2) volunteer (and help us get donations). If you have any questions or concerns, why not find the green reply button and post?
    • image courtesy of Free paper chain v.2 Stock Photo We obviously aren't sure of what community support means to you, but we are trying to figure that out by forming a NON PROFIT organization for rosacea patient advocacy and encouraging rosaceans to come together by joining the RRDi and taking steps to obtain and disseminate community support for those who are suffering from rosacea. What has the RRDi done in this regard? (1) Creating a website with pages of information, a forum of rosacea topics, a community support category, member driven rosacea blogs, galleries and clubs.   (2) Journal of the RRDi and the ability for anyone (amateur or professional) to submit a paper on rosacea to be published. (3) A legal non profit organization to allow donations to be tax deductible. (4) Education grants and the ability to volunteer as a grant writer for your non profit organization.  (5) A way for you to volunteer to help rosacea sufferers. (6) Attracting sponsors to support our non profit organization. (7) Instructions on how to use our forum.  So, what does community support mean to you? Please find the green reply button and post what it means to you? We would love to understand your concerns.  You may think that posting in a community of rosacea sufferers your experience with rosacea and getting some feedback is what community support means to you? If so, this is the correct forum category to do that by finding the green reply button and post your concern. 
    • "In a statement released Sunday night, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced it had received 30 million doses of hydroxychloroquine sulfate and one million doses of hloroquine phosphate donated to a national stockpile of potentially life-saving pharmaceuticals and medical supplies. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which are oral prescription drugs used primarily to prevent and treat malaria, are both being investigated as potential therapeutics for COVID-19." Coronavirus live updates: FDA gives anti-malaria drugs emergency approval to treat COVID-19 The two drugs are being investigated as potential treatments for COVID-19., By Morgan Winsor and Emily Shapiro, March 30, 2020, 8:05 AM, ABC News Virus has never been ruled out in rosacea. 
    • This question was asked and I am sharing my answer here as well.   Basically everyone has demodex mites and it has been thought that the mites have some sort of undisclosed symbiotic relationship, i.e., the mites eat sebum which helps the mites and helps the humans keep sebum stasis. One report states, "....Demodex mites were originally perceived to be commensals, having a symbiotic relationship with the human host." - See Jarmuda et al published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology (second article mentioned in this post). While this same report says that 'most human populations' have NOT been sampled for demodex mites the general belief is that demodex are common throughout humanity and pose no problem as a pathogen except in the case of demodectic rosacea as far as known.    A Russian study on the mites says, "Demodex folliculorum shows signs of parasitism, while Demodex folliculorum brevis is a saprophyte."  It is comparable to bacteria which humans have a relationship with, there is good bacteria and bad bacteria. The probiotic bacteria and the pathogen bacteria. The demodex mites usually pose no problem with the vast majority of humans since they are possibly on everyone. Why they become more numerous seems to be of more importance.    For some unknown reason the mites are in higher density in rosacea patients. We don't know if the rosacea cause this increase in mites or does the increase in mites cause the rosacea, the old chicken or egg conundrum? There is evidence that reducing the mite density count improves rosacea.  It is clear that the mites like human skin since they eat sebum.     Maybe the increase of sugar/carbohydrate in the diet increases sebum which in turn increases the mite population, and voila, the inflammation of rosacea?    I don't think all rosacea is demodectic. GUT Rosacea is a different variant, but may be connected or associated.  The list of systemic comorbidities with rosacea keeps growing. The gut microbiome is obviously connected with skin microbiome (see my post on this).  
    • Related Articles Epidemiological features of rosacea in Changsha, China: A population-based, cross-sectional study. J Dermatol. 2020 Mar 24;: Authors: Li J, Wang B, Deng Y, Shi W, Jian D, Liu F, Huang Y, Tang Y, Zhao Z, Huang X, Li J, Xie H Abstract Rosacea is a common chronic skin disorder of unknown etiology. While population prevalence rates range 0.2-22% in Europe and North America, prevalence in China is currently undetermined. We conducted a large population-based case-control study to determine the present epidemiological status of rosacea in China, involving 10 095 participants aged 0-100 years (mean age, 35.5 ± 19.1; 50.5% female). A census of rosacea among 15 communities in Changsha in south central China was conducted with skin examination by board-certified dermatologists. Rosacea was observed in 3.48% (95% confidence interval, 3.13-3.85%) of the study population. Subtype distribution was erythematotelangiectatic in 47.6%, papulopustular in 35.0% and phymatous in 17.4%. Family history was noted in 37.8% and ocular symptoms in 31.3%. Associations with rosacea were observed for melasma, hypertension, hyperthyroidism and breast cancer in females (P < 0.05), and also for hyperthyroidism and peptic ulcers in males (P < 0.05). Our results provide baseline information about epidemiological aspects of rosacea in China. PMID: 32207167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
    • Yes, because its all about immune system and HCQ does modulate the immune system in various ways and regulate the overactivity of immune system in some conditions. Not only does it work in getting rid of symptoms but it actually works behind the disease cause.
    • The president announced on March 19, 2020 that hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) has been approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19.  Virus has never been ruled out in rosacea.  CNN has a followup report on this.  There is a paper that indicates using Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat rosacea "exerted satisfactory therapeutic effects on erythema and inflammatory lesions of rosacea patients, indicating that it is a promising drug for rosacea in clinical treatment." Duff Man told us about this a while back that it worked for him.  Wouldn't it be incredible if any rosaceans who are treated with hydroxycholoroquine for COVID-19 also discovered that their rosacea improves or clears up! Is virus involved in rosacea?  If you do take hydroxycholoroquine and your rosacea improves, please let us know.
    • Related Articles Rosacea is Characterized by a Profoundly Diminished Skin Barrier. J Invest Dermatol. 2020 Mar 18;: Authors: Medgyesi B, Dajnoki Z, Béke G, Gáspár K, Szabó IL, Janka EA, Póliska S, Hendrik Z, Méhes G, Törőcsik D, Bíró T, Kapitány A, Szegedi A Abstract Rosacea is a common, chronic inflammation of sebaceous gland-rich facial skin characterized by severe skin dryness, elevated pH, transepidermal water loss, and decreased hydration levels. Until now, there has been no thorough molecular analysis of permeability barrier alterations in the skin of rosacea patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the barrier alterations in papulopustular rosacea (PPR) samples compared to healthy sebaceous gland-rich (SGR) skin, using RNASeq analysis (n=8). Pathway analyses by Cytoscape ClueGo revealed 15 significantly enriched pathways related to skin barrier formation. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the pathway analyses. The results showed significant alterations in barrier components in PPR samples compared to SGR, including the cornified envelope and intercellular lipid lamellae formation, desmosome and tight junction organizations, barrier alarmins, and antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, the barrier damage in PPR was unexpectedly similar to atopic dermatitis (AD); this similarity was confirmed by immunofluorescent staining. In summary, besides the well-known dysregulation of immunological, vascular, and neurological functions, we demonstrated prominent permeability barrier alterations in PPR at the molecular level, which highlight the importance of barrier repair therapies for rosacea. PMID: 32199994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
    • "Webster et al. report a multicentre, randomized, double‐masked, parallel‐group, vehicle‐controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of minocycline gel 1% and 3%. Topical minocycline had insignificant systemic absorption but produced significant reductions in mean inflammatory lesion counts with both the 1% and 3% concentrations. The response rate in the vehicle group was quite high, as is often the case in diseases with fluctuating inflammation. However, the 3% concentration of minocycline showed a significantly greater proportion of patients achieving Investigator's Global Assessment success at week 12 compared with vehicle. A topical minocycline foam formulation is in development, and this may provide a further useful option for treating papulopustular rosacea. How topical minocycline compares with other topical rosacea treatments is as yet unclear." Br J Dermatol. 2020 Mar 18;: Expanding treatment options for rosacea. Hampton PJ
    • Related Articles Expanding treatment options for rosacea. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Mar 18;: Authors: Hampton PJ PMID: 32189331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article Full Text
    • Related Articles Value of reflectance confocal microscopy for the monitoring of rosacea during treatment with topical ivermectin. J Dermatolog Treat. 2020 Mar 19;:1-9 Authors: Logger JGM, Peppelman M, van Erp PEJ, de Jong EMGJ, Nguyen KP, Driessen RJB Abstract Background: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables noninvasive Demodex mite detection in rosacea. Objective scoring of rosacea severity is currently lacking.Objectives: To determine the value of RCM for monitoring Demodex, inflammation and vascular parameters in rosacea during treatment.Methods: In 20 rosacea patients, clinical and RCM examination were performed before, during, and 12 weeks after a 16-week treatment course with topical ivermectin. Using RCM, number of mites and inflammatory cells, epidermal thickness, and vascular density and diameter were measured. RCM features were correlated with clinical assessment.Results: Treatment resulted in clinical reduction of inflammatory lesions. Mites were detected in 80% of patients at baseline, 30% at week 16, and 63% at week 28. The number of mites reduced significantly during treatment, but no changes in inflammatory cells, epidermal thickness or vascular parameters were observed. Correlation between number of inflammatory lesions and mites was low. None of the RCM variables were significant predictors for clinical success.Conclusions: RCM enables anti-inflammatory effect monitoring of topical ivermectin by determining mite presence. Quantifying exact mite number, and inflammatory and vascular characteristics is challenging due to device limitations. In its current form, RCM seems of limited value for noninvasive follow-up of rosacea in clinical practice. PMID: 32189533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article
    • The president announced today that hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) has been approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19. As mentioned in the initial post in this thread, virus has never been ruled out in rosacea. CNN has a followup report on this.  There is a paper that indicates using Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat rosacea "exerted satisfactory therapeutic effects on erythema and inflammatory lesions of rosacea patients, indicating that it is a promising drug for rosacea in clinical treatment." Duff Man told us about this a while back that it worked for him.  Wouldn't it be incredible if any rosaceans who are treated with hydroxycholoroquine for COVID-19 also discovered that their rosacea improves or clears up! Is virus involved in rosacea?  If you do take hydroxycholoroquine and your rosacea improves, please let us know.
    • "In this case report, we detail the response of a 37-year-old Caucasian man with an overlap of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and telangiectatic photoaging to brimonidine tartrate gel. With the application of brimonidine only on half of his face, skin analysis images, clinician's and patient's assessment showed that there was significant improvement in the erythema. This case has lent insight into how brimonidine can be used to assess the extent of photoaging by eliminating the erythema of rosacea to some degree. We propose that it can be used as a non-invasive test to differentiate between the two conditions, sparing patients from skin biopsies and molecular analysis." Australas J Dermatol. 2017 Feb;58(1):63-64. doi: 10.1111/ajd.12430. Epub 2016 Jan 13. Rosacea or photodamaged skin? Use of brimonidine gel in differentiating erythema in the two conditions. Oon HH, Lim ZV.
    • Telangiectatic Photoaging  "Telangiectatic photoaging is characterized by less transient and nontransient erythema, a more lateral distribution of erythema and telangiectasia, less neurogenic mast cell activation, and less MMP-mediated matrix remodeling than ETR. These data demonstrate that TP is a distinct clinical entity from ETR that can be distinguished on the basis of clinical, histologic, and gene expression findings." JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(8):825-836. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.4728 Clinical, Histologic, and Molecular Analysis of Differences Between Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea and Telangiectatic Photoaging Yolanda R. Helfrich, MD; Lisa E. Maier, MD; Yilei Cui, PhD; et al JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Aug;151(8):825-36. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.4728. Clinical, Histologic, and Molecular Analysis of Differences Between Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea and Telangiectatic Photoaging. Helfrich YR, Maier LE, Cui Y, Fisher GJ, Chubb H, Fligiel S, Sachs D, Varani J, Voorhees J. JK Wilkin has a comment on the above article published in JAMA and another in the NEJM. 
    • Related Articles Identification of Long Noncoding RNA Associated ceRNA Networks in Rosacea. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:9705950 Authors: Wang L, Lu R, Wang Y, Wang X, Hao D, Wen X, Li Y, Zeng M, Jiang X Abstract Rosacea is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory cutaneous disorder with highly variable prevalence worldwide that adversely affects the health of patients and their quality of life. However, the molecular characterization of each rosacea subtype is still unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis or regulatory processes of this disorder. In the current study, we established lncRNA-mRNA coexpression networks for three rosacea subtypes (erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, and phymatous) and performed their functional enrichment analyses using Gene Onotology, KEGG, GSEA, and WGCNA. Compared to the control group, 13 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 525 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified in the three rosacea subtypes. The differentially expressed genes identified were enriched in four signaling pathways and the GO terms found were associated with leukocyte migration. In addition, we found nine differentially expressed lncRNAs in all three rosacea subtype-related networks, including NEAT1 and HOTAIR, which may play important roles in the pathology of rosacea. Our study provided novel insights into lncRNA-mRNA coexpression networks to discover the molecular mechanisms involved in rosacea development that can be used as future targets of rosacea diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID: 32185228 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article Full Article (if anyone can make heads or tails of this article it would be much appreciated if someone could translate this paper into layman's language)  Please comment on this by clicking the green REPLY button.  In the abstract paragraph above it mentions 'NEAT1 and HOTAIR, which may play important roles in the pathology of rosacea.' If you look at the diagram above at the top of the post you can find NEAT1 near the center of the diagram in red and HOTAIR just below NEAT1 to the right in blue. That probably helped you out a lot, didn't it? Just trying to helpful. 
    • image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons                             Related Articles Distinguishing rosacea from sensitive skin by reflectance confocal microscopy. Skin Res Technol. 2020 Mar 16;: Authors: Ma Y, Li L, Chen J, Chen T, Yuan C Abstract BACKGROUND: The updated standard classification and pathophysiology of rosacea have provided clear and meaningful evaluation parameters; however, differentiating rosacea from sensitive skin (SS) remained an obstacle for dermatologists around the world, especially in China. Herein, we aimed to find a better characteristic to distinguish rosacea from SS by using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). METHOD: Forty rosacea patients and 143 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Firstly, a SS questionnaire and a lactic acid sting test were conducted among healthy subjects. Next, two major groups were divided out, including a SS group (40 subjects) and a normal skin control group (NS, 60 subjects). The cutaneous structures of face and fossa cubitalia were imaged by RCM. RESULTS: We found that more parakeratosis, honeycomb pattern, spongiform edema, and dermal papillae (P < .05) in rosacea patients than that of the NS group, whereas there were no significant differences, were found in rosacea patients and the SS group. Strikingly, we found that rosacea patients have a larger depth of honeycomb pattern than that of SS subjects (P < .05). But, the epidermal thickness of rosacea did not differ from that of SS groups. There was also no significant difference of epidermal thickness and honeycomb structure depth between rosacea patients and NS group. CONCLUSION: From the RCM images of parakeratosis, honeycomb pattern, spongiform edema, and dermal papillae, we found that RCM might be a faithful tool to distinguish rosacea from NS group. The depth of honeycomb structure of SS was more superficial than rosacea patients, whereas no significant difference between rosacea patients and NS group. RCM may provide a new method for evaluating the development of rosacea although it failed to distinguish rosacea and SS effectively. PMID: 32180258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] {url} = URL to article What is reflectance confocal microscopy?
    • Rosa canina image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Related Articles Molecular mechanism of the anti-diabetic activity of an identified oligosaccharide from Rosa canina. Res Pharm Sci. 2020 Feb;15(1):36-47 Authors: Bahrami G, Miraghaee SS, Mohammadi B, Bahrami MT, Taheripak G, Keshavarzi S, Babaei A, Sajadimajd S, Hatami R Abstract Background and purpose: Because of the high prevalence, diabetes is considered a global health threat. Hence, the need for effective, cheap, and comfortable therapies are highly felt. In previous study, a novel oligosaccharide with strong anti-diabetic activity in the crude extract of Rosa canina fruits, from the rosacea family, was identified. The present study was designed to ensure its efficacy using in vivo and in vitro studies. Experimental approach: Crude extract and its purified oligosaccharide were prepared from corresponding herb. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each, as follows: group 1, healthy control rats given only sterile normal saline; group 2, diabetic control rats received sterile normal saline; group 3, diabetic rats treated with crude extract of Rosa canina (40% w/v) by oral gavage for 8 weeks; group 4, diabetic rats treated with purified oligosaccharide of Rosa canina (2 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. After treatment, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin levels and islet beta-cell repair and proliferation were investigated. The possible cytoprotective action of oligosaccharide was evaluated in vitro. The effect of oligosaccharide on apoptosis and insulin secretion in cell culture media were examined. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of some glucose metabolism-related regulator genes. Findings / Results: In the animal model of diabetes, the insulin levels were increased significantly due to the regeneration of beta-cells in the islands of langerhans by the purified oligosaccharide. In vitro cell apoptosis examination showed that high concentration of oligosaccharide increased cell death, while at low concentration protected cells from streptozotocin-induced apoptosis. Molecular study showed that the expression of Ins1 and Pdx1 insulin production genes were increased, leading to increased expression of insulin-dependent genes such as Gck and Ptp1b. On the other hand, the expression of the Slc2a2 gene, which is related to the glucose transporter 2, was significantly reduced due to insulin concentrations. Conclusion and implications: The purified oligosaccharide from Rosa canina was a reliable anti-diabetic agent, which acted by increasing insulin production in beta-cells of the islands of Langerhans. PMID: 32180815 [PubMed] {url} = URL to article
    • "Using isotretinoin for 1-2mg/kg/day for 3-4 months produces 60%-95% clearance of inflammatory lesions in patients with acne. Doses as low as 0.1mg/kg/day have also proven successful in the clearance of lesions. Encouraging results have also been seen in small numbers of patients with rosacea, Side effects affecting the mucocutaneous system and raised serum triglyceride levels occur in most patients receiving isotretinoin." Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2020;45:119-157 Isotretinoin. Khalil NY, Darwish IA, Al-Qahtani AA
    • Related Articles Isotretinoin. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2020;45:119-157 Authors: Khalil NY, Darwish IA, Al-Qahtani AA Abstract Isotretinoin is chemically named as: (2Z, 4E, 6E, 8E)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid. It is an orally active retinoic acid derivative for the treatment of severe refractory nodulocystic acne. It acts primarily by reducing sebaceous gland size and sebum production, and as a result alters skin surface lipid composition. Using isotretinoin for 1-2mg/kg/day for 3-4 months produces 60%-95% clearance of inflammatory lesions in patients with acne. Doses as low as 0.1mg/kg/day have also proven successful in the clearance of lesions. Encouraging results have also been seen in small numbers of patients with rosacea, Side effects affecting the mucocutaneous system and raised serum triglyceride levels occur in most patients receiving isotretinoin. Isotretinoin is strictly contraindicated in women of childbearing potential. This profile discusses and explains names of isotretinoin, its physical and chemical characteristics. It also includes methods of preparation, thermal and spectral behavior, methods of analysis, and pharmacology. PMID: 32164966 [PubMed - in process] {url} = URL to article
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