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    • Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2022 Sep 22. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2022.2128334. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: : Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of rosacea have led to increased focus on the disease's immunologic etiology and to the development of immunologically based treatments. With many patients suffering from incomplete control, addressing the immune components of the disease process may provide a more effective treatment option for rosacea patients that may improve quality of life. AREAS COVERED: : This review will provide a brief overview of the pathophysiology or rosacea, as well as specific immunologic contributions to the disease state. Current standard-of-care treatments will be described, including anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotics. Emphasis will be placed on treatments that target the immune components of the disease process. EXPERT OPINION: : Rosacea remains a difficult dermatologic disease to treat, partially due to an incomplete understanding of the disease pathophysiology. The immune pathophysiology of rosacea, particularly the key role of inflammation, has been clarified over the past decade. Identification of specific molecules, including cytokines and nuclear transcription factors, may allow for the development of targeted rosacea-specific biologic and topical treatments. However, medication nonadherence is a limiting factor to achieving symptomatic control among rosacea patients. Focusing on the development of oral or injectable forms of therapy may circumvent poor adherence. PMID:36137266 | DOI:10.1080/1744666X.2022.2128334 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Sep 20. doi: 10.1111/jocd.15271. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:36126208 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.15271 {url} = URL to article
    • JAAD Case Rep. 2022 Jul 19;28:83-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jdcr.2022.07.014. eCollection 2022 Oct. NO ABSTRACT PMID:36105757 | PMC:PMC9467856 | DOI:10.1016/j.jdcr.2022.07.014 {url} = URL to article
    • Cureus. 2022 Sep 3;14(9):e28726. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28726. eCollection 2022 Sep. ABSTRACT Facial hypervascularity is a condition that manifests as erythema and edema caused by aberrant blood vessels. Often, the cause of these abnormal blood vessels can be attributed to previous trauma or vascular conditions such as rosacea, although sometimes the cause is unknown. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) can be an effective treatment even when the cause is unknown. We present a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with intermittent swelling, redness, and throbbing sensations of the nose and cheeks for the past five years. Physical examination was notable for prominent erythema and swelling of the nasal skin and mild erythema on the cheeks. He underwent treatment with PDL and achieved complete resolution of his symptoms. This case illustrates the effectiveness of PDL in the treatment of facial hypervascularity. PMID:36105901 | PMC:PMC9447474 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.28726 {url} = URL to article
    • J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.1111/ddg.14879. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT This guideline aims to improve the efficiency and safety of lasers and optical radiation sources with similar effects (especially IPL). Laser therapy of skin lesions with an increased amount of melanocytes should be performed with caution. Laser treatment of pigmented melanocytic nevi is not recommended. The guideline contains recommendations regarding the treatment of lentigines and café-au-lait spots, non-pigmented dermal nevi, Becker nevus, nevus of Ota/Hori/Ito and melasma. Further recommendations focus on the treatment of skin lesions without an increased amount of melanocytes (ephelides, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation including berloque dermatitis, seborrheic keratoses, traumatic/decorative tattoos and metallic deposits), hypopigmentation (vitiligo), benign non-pigmented neoplasms (fibrous papule of the nose, nevus sebaceus, epidermal nevus, neurofibroma, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, syringoma, xanthelasma palpebrarum), inflammatory dermatoses (acne papulopustulosa/conglobata, acne inversa, granuloma faciale, lichen sclerosus, lupus erythematosus, psoriasis vulgaris, rosacea, rhinophyma), wrinkles/dermatochalasis/striae, hypertrichosis, scars (atrophic, hypertrophic; keloids, burn/scald scars), laser-assisted skin healing, onychomycosis, precancerous lesions and malignant tumors (actinic keratoses/field cancerization, cheilitis actinica, basal cell carcinoma), vascular skin lesions (angiokeratoma, angioma, hemangioma, malformation, spider veins, granuloma telangiectaticum (pyogenic granuloma), rubeosis (erythrosis interfollicularis colli, ulerythema ophryogenes), nevus flammeus, telangiectasias and Osler's disease (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) and viral skin lesions (condylomata acuminata, mollusca contagiosa, verrucae planae juveniles/vulgares/ verrucae palmares et plantares). PMID:36098675 | DOI:10.1111/ddg.14879 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.1007/s13555-022-00798-8. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:36098878 | DOI:10.1007/s13555-022-00798-8 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.1111/jocd.15384. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting the face, and the current treatment effect is not satisfactory. Based on the photomodulation of optimal pulse technology (OPT), we developed a novel treatment mode, namely, advanced OPT with low energy, three pulses, and long pulse width (AOPT-LTL). AIMS: We aimed to explore the feasibility and underlying molecular mechanisms of AOPT-LTL treatment in a rosacea-like mouse model. Furthermore, we evaluated the safety and efficacy in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of AOPT-LTL treatment in the LL-37-induced rosacea-like mouse model. Moreover, twenty-three patients with ETR were included and received different times of treatment at intervals of two weeks depending on the severity of their condition. The treatment effect was assessed by comparing clinical photographs at baseline, one week and three months after treatment, combined with the red value, GFSS, and CEA scores. RESULTS: After the AOPT-LTL treatment of the mice, we observed that the rosacea-like phenotype, inflammatory cell infiltration, and vascular abnormalities were significantly ameliorated, and the expression of the core molecules of rosacea was significantly inhibited. In the clinical study, the AOPT-LTL treatment exerted satisfactory therapeutic effects on erythema and flushing of ETR patients. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: AOPT-LTL is a safe and effective method for the treatment of ETR. PMID:36099436 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.15384 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatol Ther. 2022 Sep 12:e15819. doi: 10.1111/dth.15819. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Brimonidine is a vasoconstrictive agent used to treat several dermatologic disorders. Here, we review the uses of brimonidine in different aspects of dermatology. METHODS: We searched keywords including rosacea, erythema, topical brimonidine, dermatology, and skin disease in PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar to collect the related published articles. RESULTS: In a review of 15 articles, we found topical brimonidine improved the facial erythema of rosacea. In addition, it reduced the erythema associated with alcohol flushing syndrome, intense pulsed light therapy, and photodynamic therapy. Furthermore, topical brimonidine was used as a hemostatic agent in dermatosurgery procedures such as Mohs surgery and nail surgery to reduce intra-operative and postoperative bleeding. Some side effects such as erythema, flushing, and burning were reported in a few patients. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, brimonidine is a beneficial drug that can be used in various dermatologic disorders with negligible side effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:36097378 | DOI:10.1111/dth.15819 {url} = URL to article
    • Front Immunol. 2022 Aug 24;13:985081. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.985081. eCollection 2022. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In recent years, frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a type of scarring alopecia, has attracted increasing attention. Several studies have reported the frequent occurrence of rosacea in FFA; however, the association between FFA and rosacea and the underlying pathogenesis have not been thoroughly clarified. Thus, this study aimed to quantify these relationships and investigate their shared molecular mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated the association between FFA and rosacea by analyzing clinical data from nine observational studies. We then analyzed the gene expression profiles of FFA and rosacea. First, differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis were used to identify the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Later, we conducted a functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network and used seven algorithms to identify hub genes. Then, we performed a correlation analysis between the hub genes and the gene set variation analysis scores of common pathways in the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The results were validated using different datasets. Finally, transcription factors were predicted and verified, and CIBERSORT and single-sample GSEA were used to estimate the infiltrating immune cells. RESULTS: Patients with FFA had significantly higher odds for rosacea (pooled odds ratio [OR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.40), and the pooled prevalence of rosacea in patients with FFA was 23% (95% CI, 14-23%). Furthermore, we identified 115 co-DEGs and 13 hub genes (CCR5, CCL19, CD2, CD38, CD83, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR4, IRF1, IRF8, and PTPRC). Seven pathways showed a high correlation with these hub genes. In addition, one TF, STAT1, was highly expressed in both diseases, and the results of the immune infiltration analysis indicated the importance of M1 macrophages and effector memory CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between FFA and rosacea, and based on the hub genes, we reveal the potential pathologies shared by the two diseases. This finding provides new insights of underlying molecular mechanisms and it may inspire future research on this comorbidity. PMID:36091020 | PMC:PMC9448884 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2022.985081 {url} = URL to article
    • J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Sep 8:S0190-9622(22)02640-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.09.004. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:36089188 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2022.09.004 {url} = URL to article
    • Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 30;23(17):9858. doi: 10.3390/ijms23179858. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose prevalence rates remain unknown in Chile. Laboratory benchmark testing for this disease is not useful, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of extracellular metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 as novel rosacea biomarkers. We designed a cross-sectional study with a control group. Participants were systemically healthy adults (n = 20) and persons with rosacea (n = 18). We performed a periodontal evaluation and collected gingival crevicular fluid to measure MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Analysis showed mean and standard deviation of MMP-9 concentrations in the GCF for patients with rosacea was 764.52 ± 569.83 pg/mL; for healthy patients, it was 260.69 ± 170.43 pg/mL (p < 0.05). The diagnosis of rosacea was responsible for the levels of MMP-9 in the GCF (p < 0.05), as opposed to periodontitis, smoking, and age (p > 0.05). The Area under ROC for MMP-9 was 0.869 (95%, C.I: 0.719-0.956), with a sensitivity of 72.22% and specificity of 81.58% for the diagnosis of rosacea. We conclude that the quantification of MMP-9 in the GCF could be used as a biomarker of rosacea. Also, rosacea was responsible for increasing the levels of MMP-9 in the GCF independent of periodontal status. PMID:36077255 | PMC:PMC9455966 | DOI:10.3390/ijms23179858 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/jocd.15365. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown pathogenesis. TWEAK and TRAIL are two cytokines thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine TWEAK and TRAIL serum levels and oxidative stress markers in patients with rosacea. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty rosacea patients and 40 sex and age -matched healthy controls were involved in the study. Serum TWEAK and TRAIL levels were evaluated with ELISA kits. Serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, total thiol, native thiol, disulfide levels were evaluated and oxidative stress index was computed. RESULTS: Serum levels of TWEAK, TRAIL and oxidative stress markers did not differ statistically in the patients and controls. Both TWEAK and TRAIL levels in the patients were detected to be statistically higher in male than in female. CONCLUSION: TWEAK and TRAIL may not have a systemic effect in rosacea, unlike other inflammatory diseases. More studies are needed to investigate the role of TWEAK and TRAIL in rosacea. PMID:36083238 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.15365 {url} = URL to article
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