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  • The RRDi endorsed the phenotype classification of rosacea in November 2016.  Galderma acknowledged the phenotype classification about a year later. In November 2017 the NRS has now moved forward with classifying rosacea into phenotypes with its own published paper. [1] Read about phenotype updates of medical authorities and rosacea organizations that have recognized this superior classification of rosacea

    For over fourteen years, rosacea was classified as subtypes, which has been controversial from the beginning. A new direction has emerged in the diagnosis and classification of rosacea which is superior to the subtype classification because the phenotype uses a "a symptom-oriented therapy approach."  

    "Because rosacea can encompass a multitude of possible combinations of signs and symptoms, the following updated classification system is based on phenotypes—observable characteristics that can result from genetic and/or environmental influences—to provide the necessary means of assessing and treating rosacea in a manner that is consistent with each individual patient's experience. The phenotypes and diagnostic criteria are largely in agreement with those recommended by the global rosacea consensus panel in 2016, and at least 1 diagnostic or 2 major phenotypes are required for the diagnosis of rosacea.' [1]

    For more information read the article by the ROSCO panel: 

    ROSCO Panel Recommends New Approach on Rosacea Diagnosis by Phenotype

    Phenotype Questions

    Phenotype Classification - How does it work? Answer.

    Why is the phenotype classification superior to the subtype classification?  Answer

    What distinguishes the phenotype classification from the subtype classification? Answer.

    Applying the Phenotype Approach for Rosacea to Practice and Research

    In the British Journal of Dermatology, May 25, 2018, it states, “Rosacea diagnosis and classification have evolved since the 2002 National Rosacea Society (NRS) expert panel subtype approach. Several working groups are now aligned to a more patient-centric phenotype approach, based on an individual's presenting signs and symptoms. However, subtyping is still commonplace across the field and an integrated approach is required to ensure widespread progression to the phenotype approach." [2]

    ”These practical recommendations are intended to indicate the next steps in the progression from subtyping to a phenotyping approach in rosacea, with the goals of improving our understanding of the disease, facilitating treatment developments, and ultimately improving care for patients with rosacea.” [2]

    "In conclusion, the updated phenotype approach, based on presenting clinical features, is the foundation for current diagnosis, classification, and treatment of rosacea." [3]

    Subtype Classification Inferior to Phenotype Classification
    "Almost a decade and a half has elapsed since the initial proposition of criteria for rosacea diagnosis and grouping into common presentations or subtypes. Reappraisal of these items suggests shortcomings in case-finding and diagnostic accuracy that require revision to facilitate rather than undermine future investigation. Subtyping of rosacea, a post-hoc means of grouping more common presentations, can be and has been subverted inappropriately to imply strict categories without adequate consideration of the varying phenotypic presentation of individuals and the potential for temporal variation. Scales for rosacea severity are also confounded by similar multidimensional aspects represented in subtyping. In clinical investigation, this can interfere with study of the course of singular features of rosacea and their measurement." [4]

    End Notes
    [1] Standard classification and pathophysiology of rosacea: The 2017 update by the National Rosacea Society Expert Committee

    [2] Applying the phenotype approach for rosacea to practice and research.
    Br J Dermatol. 2018 May 25;
    Tan J, Berg M, Gallo RL, Del Rosso JQ

    [3] Skin Therapy Lett. 2021 Jul;26(4):1-8.
    Rosacea: An Update in Diagnosis, Classification and Management
    Cindy Na-Young Kang, Monica Shah, Jerry Tan

    [4]  Shortcomings in rosacea diagnosis and classification



  • Posts

    • Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.1007/s13555-021-00613-w. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common among people with rosacea. However, the exact magnitude of the prevalence rate and odds ratios (ORs) for depression and anxiety, respectively, in rosacea patients is unclear, and no systematic review or meta-analysis of published data has yet been performed. We therefore performed as systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in rosacea patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, Embase and Medline databases for all observational studies published up to October 2020 that reported the prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. The primary outcome measures were prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 14,134,021 patients with rosacea were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of depression was 19.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0-24.3%) and that of anxiety was 15.6% (95% CI 11.8-19.3%). The prevalence of depression and anxiety was significantly lower in studies using clinical criteria to diagnose depression and anxiety (9.2 and 10.2%, respectively) than in those studies using screening tools (26.2% [P < 0.01] and 22.7% [P = 0.03], respectively). The methodological quality of the included studies greatly contributed to the heterogeneity. Patients with rosacea were more likely to experience depression (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.79-2.72) and anxiety (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.56-3.44) than healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that patients with rosacea are at a higher risk of experiencing depression and anxiety. More efforts are warranted to recognize and manage depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. PMID:34657997 | DOI:10.1007/s13555-021-00613-w {url} = URL to article
    • Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2021 Aug;38(4):590-596. doi: 10.5114/ada.2021.108917. Epub 2021 Sep 17. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, immune system disorders, Demodex infestation, neurovascular dysregulation and oxidative stress are thought to be contributory factors in the pathogenesis of rosacea. AIM: To evaluate the presence of Demodex mites, the morphologic features of the nailfold capillaries, and the systemic oxidative stress status in patients with rosacea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed with rosacea and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects were included in this prospective case-control study. The presence of Demodex infestation, the findings of nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), and the status of systemic oxidative stress measured by total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. RESULTS: Demodex infestation rates were significantly higher in rosacea patients than in controls (p = 0.001). Increases in the diameters of the capillaries and the presence of avascular areas and crossing and abnormal structures were significantly more common in rosacea patients than in the healthy controls (p < 0.01, p = 0.016, p = 0.02, p < 0.001, respectively), and hairpin structures were significantly less common in rosacea patients than in the controls (p < 0.001). The presence of crossing capillaries was positively correlated with higher TOC levels (p = 0.05), while abnormal structures were found to be correlated with lower levels of TAC (p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative status and NFC may play diagnostic and prognostic roles in rosacea, which should be confirmed by studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:34658699 | PMC:PMC8501418 | DOI:10.5114/ada.2021.108917 {url} = URL to article
    • J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Oct 17. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17758. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Few studies have investigated the relationship between rosacea and upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, with two studies reporting conflicting data that patients with rosacea are at higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).1, 2 Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate a potential relationship between rosacea and GI disorders with a focus on the upper GI tract defined as the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. PMID:34661953 | DOI:10.1111/jdv.17758 {url} = URL to article
    • Cureus. 2021 Aug 31;13(8):e17617. doi: 10.7759/cureus.17617. eCollection 2021 Aug. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The multifactorial nature of rosacea and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) pathogenesis complicates the achievement of satisfactory treatment outcomes. 13C urea breath test (UBT) has been identified as an accurate, non-invasive, and quick procedure to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with high sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to assess the correlation between H. pylori infection and rosacea and CSU patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients with rosacea and CSU in the dermatology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. History and physical examination were performed by a dermatologist. H. pylori 13C-UBT detection was performed in all subjects. RESULTS: In total, 114 patients were included in this current study, with 41 rosacea and 73 urticaria patients. The vast majority of our subjects were females (96.5%). The mean (±SD) age was 42.3 (±12.7). More than half (58.8%) of the examined samples were positive for 13C-UBT; however, positive results were significantly higher in the rosacea patients (73.2%) compared to the urticaria group (50.7%), with a p-value of 0.019. CONCLUSION: Our findings underline the significant association of H. pylori with rosacea and CSU regardless of the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. We thus recommend the inclusion of H. pylori testing in the routine workup of CSU and rosacea patients. PMID:34646668 | PMC:PMC8483814 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.17617 {url} = URL to article
    • Acta Derm Venereol. 2021 Oct 13. doi: 10.2340/actadv.v101.356. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Rosacea, a chronic condition usually recognized by its visible presentation, can be accompanied by invisible symptoms, such as burning and stinging. This aim of this review is to gather the most recent evidence on burning and stinging, in order to further emphasize the need to address these symptoms. Inflammatory pathways can explain both the signs and symptoms of rosacea, but available treatments are still evaluated primarily on their ability to treat visible signs. Recent evidence also highlights the adverse impact of symptoms, particularly burning and stinging, on quality of life. Despite an increasing understanding of symptoms and their impact, the management of burning and stinging as part of rosacea treatment has not been widely investigated. Clinicians often underestimate the impact of these symptoms and do not routinely include them as part of management. Available therapies for rosacea have the potential to treat beyond signs, and improve burning and stinging symptoms in parallel. Further investigation is needed to better understand these benefits and to optimize the management of rosacea. PMID:34643244 | DOI:10.2340/actadv.v101.356 {url} = URL to article More Information on Burning and Stinging in Rosacea
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