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  1. J Dermatolog Treat. 2021 Jul 22:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2021.1959507. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34291712 | DOI:10.1080/09546634.2021.1959507 {url} = URL to article
  2. Front Immunol. 2021 Jul 5;12:674871. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.674871. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory condition that mainly affects the central face. However, the molecular background of the normal central face and the transcriptional profiling and immune cell composition of rosacea lesions remain largely unknown. Here, we performed whole-skin and epidermal RNA-seq of central facial skin from healthy individuals, lesions and matched normal skin from rosacea patients. From whole-skin RNA-seq, the site-specific gene signatures for central facial skin were mainly enriched in epithelial cell differentiation, with upregulation of the activator protein-1 (AP1) transcription factor (TF). We identified the common upregulated inflammatory signatures and diminished keratinization signature for rosacea lesions. Gene ontology, pathway, TF enrichment and immunohistochemistry results suggested that STAT1 was the potential core of the critical TF networks connecting the epithelial-immune crosstalk in rosacea lesions. Epidermal RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry analysis further validated the epithelial-derived STAT1 signature in rosacea lesions. The epidermal STAT1/IRF1 signature was observed across ETR, PPR, and PhR subtypes. Immune cell composition revealed that macrophages were common in all 3 subtypes. Finally, we described subtype-specific gene signatures and immune cell composition correlated with phenotypes. These findings reveal the specific epithelial differentiation in normal central facial skin, and epithelial-immune crosstalk in lesions providing insight into an initial keratinocyte pattern in the pathogenesis of rosacea. PMID:34290700 | PMC:PMC8287635 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.674871 {url} = URL to article
  3. Med Res Rev. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/med.21842. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT The sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. is well established for malaria therapy, but its bioactivity spectrum is much broader. In this review, we give a comprehensive and timely overview of the literature regarding the immunosuppressive activity of artemisinin-type compounds toward inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Numerous receptor-coupled signaling pathways are inhibited by artemisinins, including the receptors for interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), β3-integrin, or RANKL, toll-like receptors and growth factor receptors. Among the receptor-coupled signal transducers are extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), phospholipase C γ1 (PLCγ), and others. All these receptors and signal transduction molecules are known to contribute to the inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB). Artemisinins may inhibit NF-κB by silencing these upstream pathways and/or by direct binding to NF-κB. Numerous NF-κB-regulated downstream genes are downregulated by artemisinin and its derivatives, for example, cytokines, chemokines, and immune receptors, which regulate immune cell differentiation, apoptosis genes, proliferation-regulating genes, signal transducers, and genes involved in antioxidant stress response. In addition to the prominent role of NF-κB, other transcription factors are also inhibited by artemisinins (mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR], activating protein 1 [AP1]/FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homologue [FOS]/JUN oncogenic transcription factor [JUN]), hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NF-ATC1), Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), NF E2-related factor-2 (NRF-2), retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (ROR-γt), and forkhead box P-3 (FOXP-3). Many in vivo experiments in disease-relevant animal models demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-type drugs against rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus erythematosus, arthrosis, and gout), lung diseases (asthma, acute lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis), neurological diseases (autoimmune encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and myasthenia gravis), skin diseases (dermatitis, rosacea, and psoriasis), inflammatory bowel disease, and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Randomized clinical trials should be conducted in the future to translate the plethora of preclinical results into clinical practice. PMID:34288018 | DOI:10.1002/med.21842 {url} = URL to article
  4. An Bras Dermatol. 2021 Jul 15:S0365-0596(21)00173-2. doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.02.004. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The frequency of autoimmune diseases and thyroid cancer has been increasingly reported in association with rosacea. However, studies investigating thyroid diseases in rosacea are scarce with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between thyroid disorders and rosacea. METHODS: A large case-control study on age- and gender-matched 2091 rosacea patients and 9572 controls was conducted. Rosacea patients using the rosacea-specific ICD codes were compiled from the hospital records. Additionally, all participants were evaluated in terms of the presence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compute case-control odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The analysis comprehended 2091 rosacea patients (1546 female, 545 male; mean 48.73 ± 14.53 years) and 9572 controls (7009 female, 2563 male; mean 48.73 ± 15.1 years). Whereas the rate of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in rosacea patients (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.13-1.49, p < 0.001), there was no significant difference in the rate of hyperthyroidism between the groups (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.81-1.53, p = 0.497). Stratification for genderrevealed a significant association between hypothyroidism and rosacea in females (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47, p = 0.002) and males (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.4, p = 0.032). The frequency of hypothyroidism in rosacea patients increased towards the age range of 40-49 and then decreased, parallel with the hypothyroidism frequency of the study population. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Different subtypes and severities of rosacea were not distinguished. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of rosacea and investigation for hypothyroidism may be appropriate when evaluating rosacea patients. PMID:34275693 | DOI:10.1016/j.abd.2021.02.004 {url} = URL to article
  5. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2021 Jul 6;14:779-814. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S315711. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Dermal filler treatments require constant reassessment for improving and safeguarding the rapidly evolving aesthetic field. Suboptimal injection technique, patient selection and product knowledge have touted a concerning increase in filler complications, with new challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic leading to new paradigms in the understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complications. The updated 10-point plan has been developed to curtail complications through consideration of causative factors, categorized as patient, product, and procedure-related. Patient-related factors include a preprocedural consultation with careful elucidation of skin conditions (acne, rosacea, dermatitis), systemic disease (allergies, autoimmune disease, underlying bacterial and viral disease (herpes simplex virus, COVID-19 infection), medications (antineoplastic drugs, recreational drugs) and previous cosmetic procedures (including fillers and energy-based devices). Patient assessment should include standardized photography and also evaluate the role of social media, ethnicity, gender, generational, and LGBTQ+ needs. Specified informed consent for both adverse events and their treatment is essential due to the increase in vascular complications, including the risk of blindness. Product-related factors include the powerful advantage of reversibility when using hyaluronic acid (HA) products. Product characteristics such as molecular weight and filler degradation should be understood. Product layering over late or minimally degradable fillers is still inadvisable due to the initial filler being teased into reactivity. Procedural factors such as consistent photographic documentation, procedural planning, aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT), knowledge of topographical anatomy and angiosomes, and technical dexterity including pinch anatomy and needle skills are of pivotal importance. The final section is dedicated to algorithms and checklists for managing and treating complications such as allergic hypersensitivity reactions, vascular events, infection, edema and late-onset adverse events (LOAEs). The updated 10-point plan is a methodical strategy aimed at further minimising the risk of dermal filler complications. PMID:34276222 | PMC:PMC8279269 | DOI:10.2147/CCID.S315711 {url} = URL to article
  6. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 10:S0190-9622(21)02012-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.865. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34274412 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.865 {url} = URL to article
  7. J Neuroophthalmol. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000001290. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34270518 | DOI:10.1097/WNO.0000000000001290 {url} = URL to article
  8. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20645. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT antibiotics represent the first-line hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) treatment, although HS is not an infectious disease1 . Prolonged antibiotic courses exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect, utilized for treating follicular/inflammatory skin diseases, e.g. acne and rosacea. Clindamycin/rifampicin or tetracyclines are usually administered for 10 to 12 weeks in moderate-to-severe HS treatment1 , mostly based on retrospective studies using non-validated severity scoring systems. PMID:34270785 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.20645 {url} = URL to article
  9. J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jul 15. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007963. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rhinophyma is the severe rosacea whit hypertrophy of sebaceous glands in nasal tissue, which severely influences the patient's appearance. Surgical therapy is the best method for treating moderate-to-severe rhinophyma. In this study, we used a new ameliorated scarification for 30 patients with moderate-to-severe rhinophyma. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of five-blades scratcher surgery on moderate-to severe rhinophyma between 2016 and 2019 in our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients were treated with five-blades scratcher under tumescent anesthesia. Outcomes were determined by a patient questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 30 patients, all of them answered the questionnaire and were included in this study with a follow-up time of 12 months. Cosmetic results were evaluated as very good or good in 90% of patients. The majority of patients (87%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the postoperative result. Surgical treatment of rhinophyma improved patients' quality of life in 67% of patients. Recurrence of rhinophyma was detected in 7% of patients. In all, 100% of the patients stated that they would recommend this treatment to others. CONCLUSIONS: Five-blades scratcher is an effective therapy for rhinophyma with excellent outcome. PMID:34267144 | DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000007963 {url} = URL to article
  10. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20641. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Treatments for many common dermatologic diagnoses are denied insurance coverage due to their arbitrary cosmetic classification. Melasma is one such diagnosis often considered cosmetic by payers, and since it is commonly identified in darker-skinned individuals, its cosmetic classification creates an economic barrier for patients of color. Although dermatologists have previously described insurance coverage gaps for conditions typically seen in patients of color, this coverage gap has never been quantified.1 Thus, we investigated the rate of insurance coverage for first-line topical treatments for rosacea versus melasma. Rosacea and melasma share a number of key features - both are common, chronic, dermatological conditions that are exacerbated by sun exposure, are primarily treated topically, and cause measurably decreased quality of life in affected patients.2,3 Rosacea, however, is often diagnosed in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I-II, with 91.8% of rosacea diagnoses seen in white patients, while melasma is predominantly diagnosed in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III-V.4-6. PMID:34254297 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.20641 {url} = URL to article What is the Fitzpatrick Scale?
  11. Case Rep Dermatol. 2021 Jun 21;13(2):321-329. doi: 10.1159/000517209. eCollection 2021 May-Aug. ABSTRACT Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) and granulomatous rosacea are 2 distinct inflammatory dermatoses with overlapping clinical features: reddish-yellow papular eruptions localized on the central face. Consequently, LMDF can easily be misdiagnosed as granulomatous rosacea or vice versa. Because delayed treatment in LMDF may increase chances of permanent scar formation, accurate diagnosis is important. We therefore analyzed published literature and case studies to organize the essential features differentiating LMDF from granulomatous rosacea. In addition, we report each case of LMDF and granulomatous rosacea for direct comparison. PMID:34248540 | PMC:PMC8255731 | DOI:10.1159/000517209 {url} = URL to article
  12. Front Immunol. 2021 Jun 24;12:698522. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.698522. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was initially demonstrated to be critical in regulating inflammatory responses among various allergic disorders (such as atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and asthma). Although two isoforms (short form and long form) of TSLP have been demonstrated in human tissues, the long form of TSLP (lfTSLP) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of allergies and cutaneous immune-mediated diseases. The immunomodulatory activity of lfTSLP varies widely, driving T helper (Th) cells polarizing Th2 and Th17 immune responses and inducing itch. Moreover, lfTSLP is closely associated with skin fibrosis, epidermal hyperplasia, angiogenesis, and homeostatic tolerogenic regulations. This review highlights significant progress from experimental and clinical studies on lfTSLP in cutaneous immune-mediated diseases (atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, bullous pemphigoid, systemic sclerosis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, Behçet's disease, vitiligo, rosacea, systemic lupus erythematosus, and alopecia areata). We also offer original insights into the pleiotropic properties of the cytokine TSLP in various pathophysiological conditions, with significant clinical implications of TSLP-targeted therapies for immune-mediated skin diseases in the future. PMID:34249003 | PMC:PMC8264505 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.698522 {url} = URL to article
  13. Lasers Surg Med. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23439. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated if oxymetazoline therapy combined with 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) will be more beneficial than topical oxymetazoline alone for the improvement of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial approved by an independent Institutional Review Board, which enrolled 34 patients with moderate to severe clinical erythema (CEA) into a two-arm study of PDL with concomitant oxymetazoline cream (Arm 1) and oxymetazoline cream alone (Arm 2). Patients in Arm 1 were treated with 3 monthly laser sessions, which were started after 1 month of topical oxymetazoline cream. Thirty subjects continued with the study, and 25 subjects (Arm 1: 14, Arm 2: 11) completed the 6-month follow-up. With photographic comparison to baseline images, efficacy endpoints were based on clinical on-site grading by both the investigator and the patient, using the grading tools for CEA, Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) assessment, vessel size improvement, and subject self-assessment. These scales were assessed at baseline and/or at each clinical follow-up at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months. Subject satisfaction as well as post-treatment immediate response and treatment-associated pain scores were also evaluated. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in CEA was seen in both arms at the 1-, 2-, and 3-month post-baseline visits (P < 0.01). Only Arm 1 presented statistically significant improvement in CEA (P < 0.001) at 6 months post baseline with a mean score of 1.6 (almost clear-mild) compared with 3.2 at baseline. Arm 1 showed significantly greater mean vessel size improvement at 3 months (P < 0.01) and 6 months (P < 0.05) post baseline compared to Arm 2. Significantly greater improvement (P < 0.05) in the investigator GAI score was reported at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups compared with Arm 2. Subject GAI scores showed statistically significant greater improvement in Arm 1 compared with Arm 2 at both the 3- and 6-month follow-ups (P < 0.01). There were no complications or long-term effects associated with PDL or topical oxymetazoline treatments. CONCLUSION: The prospective trial verifies a safe, enhanced clinical outcome with the combination of PDL therapy and topical oxymetazoline for the treatment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2021 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. PMID:34233378 | DOI:10.1002/lsm.23439 {url} = URL to article
  14. Lasers Surg Med. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23451. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of vascular lesions is one of the main applications of cutaneous laser technology, while the other is laser hair removal. We present here a vascular laser pumped by a commercial hair removal laser. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel 524 nm vascular laser was designed using a 755 nm hair removal laser as a pumping source. This 524 nm vascular laser was used to treat facial redness and leg telangiectasias in 24 subjects. Four treatments were administered to the face at 4-6-week intervals and final photographs were taken 8 weeks following the final treatment, while two treatments were administered to lower-extremity spider veins at 2-month intervals with follow-up photographs 3 months following the final treatment. Blinded analysis of digital images was performed by two physicians not involved in the study. RESULTS: Blinded evaluation of digital photographs revealed an average improvement score of 3.3 ± 1.7 (mean ± SEM) on a 0-10 scale for removing facial redness (p < 0.001), representing a 33% improvement. Leg veins improved an average of 51% corresponding to a score of 5.1 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001). Side effects were mild and limited to erythema, purpura, edema, and one instance of mild hyperpigmentation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel 524 nm laser is safe and effective for treating vascularity on the face and legs, and proves the ability to create a laser platform incorporating a hair removal laser which then can be used as a pumping source for the attached vascular laser module. PMID:34233025 | DOI:10.1002/lsm.23451 {url} = URL to article
  15. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):772-775. doi: 10.36849/JDD.C702. ABSTRACT Rhinophyma is a disfiguring disorder that is characterized by an erythematous, hypertrophied, and inflamed lower two-thirds of the nose. Widely accepted as the severe form of acne rosacea, rhinophyma can result in functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial concerns that require treatment in a cosmetic fashion. Rosacea should be treated in its earliest manifestations to mitigate the progression towards rhinophyma; therefore, early detection and intervention is a crucial part of treatment. Little has been written on this subject in people of color. We present the first reported case of rhinophyma in a 62-year-old Fitzpatrick V female patient who was successfully treated with one session of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing. This case highlights the successful use of the fractional CO2 laser to treat rhinophyma in darker skin types (Fitzpatrick IV&ndash;VI) and underscores the potential for future use among patients of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(7):772-775. doi:10.36849/JDD.C702. PMID:34231998 | DOI:10.36849/JDD.C702 {url} = URL to article
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