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  1. J Dermatolog Treat. 2021 Jul 22:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2021.1959507. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34291712 | DOI:10.1080/09546634.2021.1959507 {url} = URL to article
  2. Front Immunol. 2021 Jul 5;12:674871. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.674871. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory condition that mainly affects the central face. However, the molecular background of the normal central face and the transcriptional profiling and immune cell composition of rosacea lesions remain largely unknown. Here, we performed whole-skin and epidermal RNA-seq of central facial skin from healthy individuals, lesions and matched normal skin from rosacea patients. From whole-skin RNA-seq, the site-specific gene signatures for central facial skin were mainly enriched in epithelial cell differentiation, with upregulation of the activator protein-1 (AP1) transcription factor (TF). We identified the common upregulated inflammatory signatures and diminished keratinization signature for rosacea lesions. Gene ontology, pathway, TF enrichment and immunohistochemistry results suggested that STAT1 was the potential core of the critical TF networks connecting the epithelial-immune crosstalk in rosacea lesions. Epidermal RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry analysis further validated the epithelial-derived STAT1 signature in rosacea lesions. The epidermal STAT1/IRF1 signature was observed across ETR, PPR, and PhR subtypes. Immune cell composition revealed that macrophages were common in all 3 subtypes. Finally, we described subtype-specific gene signatures and immune cell composition correlated with phenotypes. These findings reveal the specific epithelial differentiation in normal central facial skin, and epithelial-immune crosstalk in lesions providing insight into an initial keratinocyte pattern in the pathogenesis of rosacea. PMID:34290700 | PMC:PMC8287635 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.674871 {url} = URL to article
  3. Med Res Rev. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/med.21842. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT The sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. is well established for malaria therapy, but its bioactivity spectrum is much broader. In this review, we give a comprehensive and timely overview of the literature regarding the immunosuppressive activity of artemisinin-type compounds toward inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Numerous receptor-coupled signaling pathways are inhibited by artemisinins, including the receptors for interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), β3-integrin, or RANKL, toll-like receptors and growth factor receptors. Among the receptor-coupled signal transducers are extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), phospholipase C γ1 (PLCγ), and others. All these receptors and signal transduction molecules are known to contribute to the inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB). Artemisinins may inhibit NF-κB by silencing these upstream pathways and/or by direct binding to NF-κB. Numerous NF-κB-regulated downstream genes are downregulated by artemisinin and its derivatives, for example, cytokines, chemokines, and immune receptors, which regulate immune cell differentiation, apoptosis genes, proliferation-regulating genes, signal transducers, and genes involved in antioxidant stress response. In addition to the prominent role of NF-κB, other transcription factors are also inhibited by artemisinins (mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR], activating protein 1 [AP1]/FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homologue [FOS]/JUN oncogenic transcription factor [JUN]), hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NF-ATC1), Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), NF E2-related factor-2 (NRF-2), retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (ROR-γt), and forkhead box P-3 (FOXP-3). Many in vivo experiments in disease-relevant animal models demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-type drugs against rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus erythematosus, arthrosis, and gout), lung diseases (asthma, acute lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis), neurological diseases (autoimmune encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and myasthenia gravis), skin diseases (dermatitis, rosacea, and psoriasis), inflammatory bowel disease, and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Randomized clinical trials should be conducted in the future to translate the plethora of preclinical results into clinical practice. PMID:34288018 | DOI:10.1002/med.21842 {url} = URL to article
  4. An Bras Dermatol. 2021 Jul 15:S0365-0596(21)00173-2. doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.02.004. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The frequency of autoimmune diseases and thyroid cancer has been increasingly reported in association with rosacea. However, studies investigating thyroid diseases in rosacea are scarce with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between thyroid disorders and rosacea. METHODS: A large case-control study on age- and gender-matched 2091 rosacea patients and 9572 controls was conducted. Rosacea patients using the rosacea-specific ICD codes were compiled from the hospital records. Additionally, all participants were evaluated in terms of the presence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compute case-control odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The analysis comprehended 2091 rosacea patients (1546 female, 545 male; mean 48.73 ± 14.53 years) and 9572 controls (7009 female, 2563 male; mean 48.73 ± 15.1 years). Whereas the rate of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in rosacea patients (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.13-1.49, p < 0.001), there was no significant difference in the rate of hyperthyroidism between the groups (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.81-1.53, p = 0.497). Stratification for genderrevealed a significant association between hypothyroidism and rosacea in females (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47, p = 0.002) and males (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.4, p = 0.032). The frequency of hypothyroidism in rosacea patients increased towards the age range of 40-49 and then decreased, parallel with the hypothyroidism frequency of the study population. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Different subtypes and severities of rosacea were not distinguished. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of rosacea and investigation for hypothyroidism may be appropriate when evaluating rosacea patients. PMID:34275693 | DOI:10.1016/j.abd.2021.02.004 {url} = URL to article
  5. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2021 Jul 6;14:779-814. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S315711. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Dermal filler treatments require constant reassessment for improving and safeguarding the rapidly evolving aesthetic field. Suboptimal injection technique, patient selection and product knowledge have touted a concerning increase in filler complications, with new challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic leading to new paradigms in the understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complications. The updated 10-point plan has been developed to curtail complications through consideration of causative factors, categorized as patient, product, and procedure-related. Patient-related factors include a preprocedural consultation with careful elucidation of skin conditions (acne, rosacea, dermatitis), systemic disease (allergies, autoimmune disease, underlying bacterial and viral disease (herpes simplex virus, COVID-19 infection), medications (antineoplastic drugs, recreational drugs) and previous cosmetic procedures (including fillers and energy-based devices). Patient assessment should include standardized photography and also evaluate the role of social media, ethnicity, gender, generational, and LGBTQ+ needs. Specified informed consent for both adverse events and their treatment is essential due to the increase in vascular complications, including the risk of blindness. Product-related factors include the powerful advantage of reversibility when using hyaluronic acid (HA) products. Product characteristics such as molecular weight and filler degradation should be understood. Product layering over late or minimally degradable fillers is still inadvisable due to the initial filler being teased into reactivity. Procedural factors such as consistent photographic documentation, procedural planning, aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT), knowledge of topographical anatomy and angiosomes, and technical dexterity including pinch anatomy and needle skills are of pivotal importance. The final section is dedicated to algorithms and checklists for managing and treating complications such as allergic hypersensitivity reactions, vascular events, infection, edema and late-onset adverse events (LOAEs). The updated 10-point plan is a methodical strategy aimed at further minimising the risk of dermal filler complications. PMID:34276222 | PMC:PMC8279269 | DOI:10.2147/CCID.S315711 {url} = URL to article
  6. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 10:S0190-9622(21)02012-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.865. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34274412 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.865 {url} = URL to article
  7. J Neuroophthalmol. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000001290. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:34270518 | DOI:10.1097/WNO.0000000000001290 {url} = URL to article
  8. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20645. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT antibiotics represent the first-line hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) treatment, although HS is not an infectious disease1 . Prolonged antibiotic courses exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect, utilized for treating follicular/inflammatory skin diseases, e.g. acne and rosacea. Clindamycin/rifampicin or tetracyclines are usually administered for 10 to 12 weeks in moderate-to-severe HS treatment1 , mostly based on retrospective studies using non-validated severity scoring systems. PMID:34270785 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.20645 {url} = URL to article
  9. J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jul 15. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007963. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rhinophyma is the severe rosacea whit hypertrophy of sebaceous glands in nasal tissue, which severely influences the patient's appearance. Surgical therapy is the best method for treating moderate-to-severe rhinophyma. In this study, we used a new ameliorated scarification for 30 patients with moderate-to-severe rhinophyma. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of five-blades scratcher surgery on moderate-to severe rhinophyma between 2016 and 2019 in our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients were treated with five-blades scratcher under tumescent anesthesia. Outcomes were determined by a patient questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 30 patients, all of them answered the questionnaire and were included in this study with a follow-up time of 12 months. Cosmetic results were evaluated as very good or good in 90% of patients. The majority of patients (87%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the postoperative result. Surgical treatment of rhinophyma improved patients' quality of life in 67% of patients. Recurrence of rhinophyma was detected in 7% of patients. In all, 100% of the patients stated that they would recommend this treatment to others. CONCLUSIONS: Five-blades scratcher is an effective therapy for rhinophyma with excellent outcome. PMID:34267144 | DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000007963 {url} = URL to article
  10. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20641. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Treatments for many common dermatologic diagnoses are denied insurance coverage due to their arbitrary cosmetic classification. Melasma is one such diagnosis often considered cosmetic by payers, and since it is commonly identified in darker-skinned individuals, its cosmetic classification creates an economic barrier for patients of color. Although dermatologists have previously described insurance coverage gaps for conditions typically seen in patients of color, this coverage gap has never been quantified.1 Thus, we investigated the rate of insurance coverage for first-line topical treatments for rosacea versus melasma. Rosacea and melasma share a number of key features - both are common, chronic, dermatological conditions that are exacerbated by sun exposure, are primarily treated topically, and cause measurably decreased quality of life in affected patients.2,3 Rosacea, however, is often diagnosed in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I-II, with 91.8% of rosacea diagnoses seen in white patients, while melasma is predominantly diagnosed in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III-V.4-6. PMID:34254297 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.20641 {url} = URL to article What is the Fitzpatrick Scale?
  11. Case Rep Dermatol. 2021 Jun 21;13(2):321-329. doi: 10.1159/000517209. eCollection 2021 May-Aug. ABSTRACT Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) and granulomatous rosacea are 2 distinct inflammatory dermatoses with overlapping clinical features: reddish-yellow papular eruptions localized on the central face. Consequently, LMDF can easily be misdiagnosed as granulomatous rosacea or vice versa. Because delayed treatment in LMDF may increase chances of permanent scar formation, accurate diagnosis is important. We therefore analyzed published literature and case studies to organize the essential features differentiating LMDF from granulomatous rosacea. In addition, we report each case of LMDF and granulomatous rosacea for direct comparison. PMID:34248540 | PMC:PMC8255731 | DOI:10.1159/000517209 {url} = URL to article
  12. Front Immunol. 2021 Jun 24;12:698522. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.698522. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was initially demonstrated to be critical in regulating inflammatory responses among various allergic disorders (such as atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and asthma). Although two isoforms (short form and long form) of TSLP have been demonstrated in human tissues, the long form of TSLP (lfTSLP) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of allergies and cutaneous immune-mediated diseases. The immunomodulatory activity of lfTSLP varies widely, driving T helper (Th) cells polarizing Th2 and Th17 immune responses and inducing itch. Moreover, lfTSLP is closely associated with skin fibrosis, epidermal hyperplasia, angiogenesis, and homeostatic tolerogenic regulations. This review highlights significant progress from experimental and clinical studies on lfTSLP in cutaneous immune-mediated diseases (atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, bullous pemphigoid, systemic sclerosis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, Behçet's disease, vitiligo, rosacea, systemic lupus erythematosus, and alopecia areata). We also offer original insights into the pleiotropic properties of the cytokine TSLP in various pathophysiological conditions, with significant clinical implications of TSLP-targeted therapies for immune-mediated skin diseases in the future. PMID:34249003 | PMC:PMC8264505 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.698522 {url} = URL to article
  13. Lasers Surg Med. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23439. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated if oxymetazoline therapy combined with 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) will be more beneficial than topical oxymetazoline alone for the improvement of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial approved by an independent Institutional Review Board, which enrolled 34 patients with moderate to severe clinical erythema (CEA) into a two-arm study of PDL with concomitant oxymetazoline cream (Arm 1) and oxymetazoline cream alone (Arm 2). Patients in Arm 1 were treated with 3 monthly laser sessions, which were started after 1 month of topical oxymetazoline cream. Thirty subjects continued with the study, and 25 subjects (Arm 1: 14, Arm 2: 11) completed the 6-month follow-up. With photographic comparison to baseline images, efficacy endpoints were based on clinical on-site grading by both the investigator and the patient, using the grading tools for CEA, Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) assessment, vessel size improvement, and subject self-assessment. These scales were assessed at baseline and/or at each clinical follow-up at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months. Subject satisfaction as well as post-treatment immediate response and treatment-associated pain scores were also evaluated. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in CEA was seen in both arms at the 1-, 2-, and 3-month post-baseline visits (P < 0.01). Only Arm 1 presented statistically significant improvement in CEA (P < 0.001) at 6 months post baseline with a mean score of 1.6 (almost clear-mild) compared with 3.2 at baseline. Arm 1 showed significantly greater mean vessel size improvement at 3 months (P < 0.01) and 6 months (P < 0.05) post baseline compared to Arm 2. Significantly greater improvement (P < 0.05) in the investigator GAI score was reported at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups compared with Arm 2. Subject GAI scores showed statistically significant greater improvement in Arm 1 compared with Arm 2 at both the 3- and 6-month follow-ups (P < 0.01). There were no complications or long-term effects associated with PDL or topical oxymetazoline treatments. CONCLUSION: The prospective trial verifies a safe, enhanced clinical outcome with the combination of PDL therapy and topical oxymetazoline for the treatment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2021 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. PMID:34233378 | DOI:10.1002/lsm.23439 {url} = URL to article
  14. Lasers Surg Med. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23451. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of vascular lesions is one of the main applications of cutaneous laser technology, while the other is laser hair removal. We present here a vascular laser pumped by a commercial hair removal laser. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel 524 nm vascular laser was designed using a 755 nm hair removal laser as a pumping source. This 524 nm vascular laser was used to treat facial redness and leg telangiectasias in 24 subjects. Four treatments were administered to the face at 4-6-week intervals and final photographs were taken 8 weeks following the final treatment, while two treatments were administered to lower-extremity spider veins at 2-month intervals with follow-up photographs 3 months following the final treatment. Blinded analysis of digital images was performed by two physicians not involved in the study. RESULTS: Blinded evaluation of digital photographs revealed an average improvement score of 3.3 ± 1.7 (mean ± SEM) on a 0-10 scale for removing facial redness (p < 0.001), representing a 33% improvement. Leg veins improved an average of 51% corresponding to a score of 5.1 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001). Side effects were mild and limited to erythema, purpura, edema, and one instance of mild hyperpigmentation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel 524 nm laser is safe and effective for treating vascularity on the face and legs, and proves the ability to create a laser platform incorporating a hair removal laser which then can be used as a pumping source for the attached vascular laser module. PMID:34233025 | DOI:10.1002/lsm.23451 {url} = URL to article
  15. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):772-775. doi: 10.36849/JDD.C702. ABSTRACT Rhinophyma is a disfiguring disorder that is characterized by an erythematous, hypertrophied, and inflamed lower two-thirds of the nose. Widely accepted as the severe form of acne rosacea, rhinophyma can result in functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial concerns that require treatment in a cosmetic fashion. Rosacea should be treated in its earliest manifestations to mitigate the progression towards rhinophyma; therefore, early detection and intervention is a crucial part of treatment. Little has been written on this subject in people of color. We present the first reported case of rhinophyma in a 62-year-old Fitzpatrick V female patient who was successfully treated with one session of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing. This case highlights the successful use of the fractional CO2 laser to treat rhinophyma in darker skin types (Fitzpatrick IV&ndash;VI) and underscores the potential for future use among patients of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(7):772-775. doi:10.36849/JDD.C702. PMID:34231998 | DOI:10.36849/JDD.C702 {url} = URL to article
  16. Arch Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jun;22(3):131-134. doi: 10.7181/acfs.2021.00185. Epub 2021 Jun 25. ABSTRACT Morbihan disease (MD) is a rare condition that involves rosaceous lymphedema or erythematous lymphedema of the middle and upper thirds of the face. It typically affects the periorbital region, forehead, glabella, nose, and cheeks. The etiology of MD remains unclear, and its diagnosis is challenging. MD often tends to be unresponsive to therapies commonly used to treat rosacea, including corticosteroids, isotretinoin, and antibiotics. Surgical treatments have therefore been attempted, but most cases showed unsatisfactory responses. These problems could have resulted from an incorrect recognition and interpretation of the pathophysiology of MD and inaccurate planning of the operation, resulting in recurrence or exacerbation of edema. PMID:34225403 | DOI:10.7181/acfs.2021.00185 {url} = URL to article More Information on MD
  17. Front Psychiatry. 2021 Jun 16;12:659171. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.659171. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by facial redness and bothersome symptoms. It can exert significant psychological effects and impair the quality of life of patients. To investigate the prevalence and risk predictors of anxiety and depression in rosacea patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study in an outpatient setting. Consecutive patients completed a questionnaire, which included questions on sociodemographic information and severity of signs and symptoms; they also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. Disease burden was assessed using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Willing-to-Pay, and Time trade-off. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors for anxiety and depression. A total of 774 patients completed the survey. The prevalence of anxiety was 53.9% (95% CI: 50.4-57.4%) and that of depression was 58.1% (95% CI: 54.7-61.6%). The factors associated with anxiety were age, gender, the need to make appearances at work, severity of self-reported symptoms, the number of rosacea signs and adaptive behaviors, and disease burden. Depression was associated with younger age, more severe self-reported symptoms, more adaptive behaviors, and higher disease burden. After adjusting for demographics, the risk of anxiety or depression increased in young patients who had severe self-reported symptoms, high DLQI scores, and many adaptive behaviors. Taken together, there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression among Chinese rosacea patients. Younger rosacea patients who have more severe self-reported symptoms and higher disease burden are prone to anxiety and depression. PMID:34220573 | PMC:PMC8244786 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.659171 {url} = URL to article
  18. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2021 Feb;14(2):22-24. Epub 2021 Feb 1. ABSTRACT Rosacea and cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) are chronic inflammatory dermatoses. To our knowledge, no cases of granulomatous rosacea (GR) associated with CLE have been previously reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 38-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a diffuse scaly facial erythema, with the codiagnoses of GR and CLE later confirmed with clinicopathological correlation. PMID:34221223 | PMC:PMC8211343 {url} = URL to article Other Co-existing Conditions with Rosacea
  19. Nutrients. 2021 Jun 24;13(7):2165. doi: 10.3390/nu13072165. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Allergy to nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) is the main cause of plant-food allergy in Spain. nsLTPs are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have high cross-reactivity but extremely variable clinical expression. Little is known about the natural evolution of this allergy, which complicates management. The objective of this study was to assess the development of allergy to new plant foods in nsLTP-sensitized patients 10 years after diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one patients showing specific IgE to nsLTP determined by ISAC (Thermofisher) were included. After clinical workup (i.e., anamnesis, skin test, and challenge when needed), these patients were divided into two groups: 113 patients allergic to one or more plant food (74.5%) and 38 patients not allergic to any plant food (25.1%). Ten years later, a telephone interview was conducted to check whether patients had developed additional allergic reactions to plant foods. RESULTS: Ten years after diagnosis, 35 of the 113 (31%) plant-food-allergic patients sensitized to nsLTP reported reactions to new, previously tolerated plant foods, mainly Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruits and nuts followed by vegetables, Rosacea/Pomoideae fruits, legumes, and cereals. Five out of 38 (13.2%) patients previously sensitized to nsLTP but without allergy to any plant food had experienced allergic reactions to some plant food: two to Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruits, two to Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruit and nuts, and one to legumes. CONCLUSION: Patients sensitized to nsLTP developed allergic reactions to other plant foods, mainly Rosaceae-Prunoideae fruits and nuts. This was more frequent among plant-food-allergic patients than among those who had never had plant-food allergy. PMID:34202484 | DOI:10.3390/nu13072165 {url} = URL to article
  20. Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Jun 22;10(7):757. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10070757. ABSTRACT Resistance of Cutibacterium acnes to topical antibiotics historically used to treat acne (topical erythromycin and clindamycin and, more recently, topical azithromycin and clarithromycin) has been steadily increasing and new topical antibiotics are needed. Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline-derived antibiotic currently used systemically to treat a wide range of infections caused by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to its antibiotic activity, minocycline possesses anti-inflammatory properties, such as the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, suppression of neutrophil chemotaxis, activation of superoxide dismutase, and inhibition of phagocytosis, among others. These characteristics make minocycline a valuable agent for treatment of dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris and papulopustular rosacea. However, more frequent or serious adverse effects have been observed upon the systemic administration of minocycline than with other tetracyclines. Examples of serious adverse effects include hypersensitivity syndrome reaction, drug-induced lupus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and other autoimmune syndromes that may cause death. Here, we review adverse effects and drug-drug interactions observed with oral administration of minocycline and contrast this with topical minocycline formulations recently approved or under development for effectively treating dermatological disorders with fewer adverse effects and less drug interaction. PMID:34206485 | DOI:10.3390/antibiotics10070757 {url} = URL to article
  21. J Clin Med. 2021 Jun 29;10(13):2897. doi: 10.3390/jcm10132897. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a facial inflammatory dermatosis that is linked with various systemic illnesses. With regards to the eye, rosacea patients have been described to manifest ocular surface changes, such as blepharitis and conjunctivitis. However, studies that examine the association of rosacea with a wider array of ocular diseases are limited. Thus, our aim was to identify the range of ocular comorbidities in the Korean patient population and create a reference data set. A multi-institutional, case-control study was conducted, where 12,936 rosacea patients and an equal number of sex- and age-matched control subjects were extracted over a 12-year period. We were able to discover a notable association between rosacea and blepharitis (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 2.71-4.36, p < 0.001), conjunctivitis (aOR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.50-1.82, p < 0.001), glaucoma (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.70-2.20, p < 0.001), dry eye syndrome (aOR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.70-2.09, p < 0.001), and chalazion (aOR 3.26; 95% CI, 1.41-7.57, p = 0.006) from logistic regression analysis. Female subjects and individuals younger than 50 exclusively showed higher odds for chalazion. Our study suggests that ocular comorbidities (i.e., glaucoma, dry eye syndrome, and chalazion as well as blepharitis and conjunctivitis) are more prevalent among Koreans with rosacea. Clinicians should proactively check ocular symptoms in rosacea and employ joint care with an ophthalmologist in cases of need. PMID:34209731 | DOI:10.3390/jcm10132897 {url} = URL to article Other Systemic Comorbidities in Rosacea
  22. Arch Dermatol Res. 2021 Jul 1. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02259-2. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a common chronic facial inflammatory skin disease. However, treatment for "difficult-to-treat rosacea" cases has not been established. This 48-week, prospective, observational study analyzed patients who underwent three non-insulated fractional microneedle radiofrequency (NFMRF) sessions at 2-month intervals. Therapy efficacy, epidermal barrier function, and side effects were evaluated. 34 subjects completed the trial. NFMRF resulted in CEA score reduction from 2.65 ± 0.59 to 1.56 ± 0.50 (P < 0.001) and mean DLQI reduction from 16.70 ± 3.55 to 10.48 ± 2.92 (P < 0.001). The successes of CEA (44.12 vs. 2.94%), IGA (91.67 vs. 25.00%), and flushing (58.82 vs. 26.47%) were observed. Among 34 patients, 22 reported "excellent" or "good" improvement and 30 were "very" or "relatively" satisfied. Skin barrier results revealed that hemoglobin content significantly decreased from 376.47 ± 71.29 at visit 0 to 161.32 ± 52.86 at visit 3. 2 of 30 patients followed-up at 6 months had a relapse at 18 and 20 weeks, respectively. No serious side effects were observed. NFMRF alone results in visible improvement and has great efficacy for difficult-to-treat rosacea without compromising patient safety or damaging the skin barrier. PMID:34196817 | DOI:10.1007/s00403-021-02259-2 {url} = URL to article
  23. Dermatol Ther. 2021 Jul 1:e15049. doi: 10.1111/dth.15049. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Rosacea is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease, with a high prevalence among adults. Treatment of rosacea is difficult, with high rate of recurrence. Due to the strong anti- inflammatory and antibacterial effects of platelet rich plasma, it was used in the medicine for treating many inflammatory diseases. To evaluate the role of platelet rich plasma injection in treatment of rosacea. The study was carried on 40 patients with rosacea. They were treated by platelet rich plasma injection in right side of the face (group A) and platelet poor plasma injection in left side (group B). They underwent one session every 2 weeks for 3 months (6 sessions). The patients were assessed clinically before and after treatment by the Rosacea grading scale. Skin biopsies were taken to evaluate the clinical results. There was a statistically significant decrease in Rosacea grading scale after treatment with platelet rich plasma injection, 50% of the patients showed excellent improvement and 50% showed good improvement. The improvement was significantly better in group A than B. There was marked decrease in inflammatory cells by haematoxylin and eosin stain, and decrease in expression of nuclear factor kappa βeta after treatment with platelet rich plasma. PRP was effective and safe technique in treatment of rosacea and alternative to other systemic modalities, especially if they are contraindicated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:34197656 | DOI:10.1111/dth.15049 {url} = URL to article
  24. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Jun 30. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14315. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly with skin or ocular manifestations. Topical calcineurin inhibitors, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, can be used to treat rosacea. However, they can also induce rosacea-like eruptions. AIMS: This study systematically reviewed the double-edged sword effect of pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in rosacea. METHODS: Four databases were retrieved to search for articles on the effects of pimecrolimus and tacrolimus on rosacea, including Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science. Only English articles were included in the systematic review. Relevant data were collected, and the levels of evidence were evaluated. RESULTS: 28 articles published between 2001 and 2016 were included. 11 articles were about pimecrolimus as the treatment of rosacea, 4 articles were about the pimecrolimus-induced rosacea, 9 articles were about tacrolimus as the treatment of rosacea, and 4 articles were about tacrolimus-induced rosacea. Participants for each study ranged from 1 to 200. Several types of outcome measurements were used for these publications. CONCLUSIONS: Both pimecrolimus and tacrolimus might have double-edged sword effects on rosacea. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus could be effective for rosacea. However, both of them could also induce rosacea. Larger, randomized, controlled studies on pimecrolimus and tacrolimus as the treatment of rosacea and studies on mechanisms of pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in treating or inducing rosacea are needed. This systematic review emphasized the double-edged sword role of topical calcineurin inhibitors in rosacea, which may pave the way for future research. PMID:34192412 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.14315 {url} = URL to article Is this a Rebound or Allergic Reaction?
  25. Indian J Dermatol. 2021 Mar-Apr;66(2):165-168. doi: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_290_18. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the facial skin. OBJECTIVES: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that is commonly used for the diagnosis of dermatological diseases. This article aims to determine the clinical and dermoscopic manifestations of the rosacea patients and the presence of the accompanying Demodex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated 23 patients who were diagnosed with rosacea through clinical and dermoscopic findings. The patients were clinically and dermoscopically photographed and were classified according to the rosacea classification. The presence of Demodex was demonstrated both dermoscopically and through biopsy. RESULTS: There were a total of 23 participants (17 females and 6 males). The ages of the participants ranged between 28 and 75, with an average of 49. Among the 23 participants, 14 were erythematotelangiectatic, 7 were papulopustular, and 2 were rhinophyma. A total of 12 participants (4 males and 8 females) had ocular involvement. The most common dermoscopic finding was a linear vascular structure. A total of 15 patients (11 females and 4 males) had the demodicosis finding. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of rosacea and demodicosis through dermoscopic findings is as reliable as a biopsy and it has the advantage of being noninvasive. PMID:34188272 | PMC:PMC8208267 | DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_290_18 {url} = URL to article
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