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  • Demodectic Rosacea

    Demodectic Rosacea is a rosacea variant, just as valid a variant as Granulomatous Rosacea.

     demodex.jpg Demodex Folliculorum [1]

    "The Demodex mite is beginning to be accepted as one of the triggers of this inflammatory cascade, and its proliferation as a marker of rosacea; moreover, the papulopustules of rosacea can be effectively treated with topical acaricidal agents. Demodex proliferation appears to be a continuum process in rosacea, and may not be clinically visible at the onset of the disease." [2]

    The RRDi is the only non profit organization for rosacea that has officially recognized Demodectic Rosacea as a variant of rosacea. "Recently human primary demodicosis has been recognized as a primary disease sui generis and a clinical classification has been proposed. A secondary form of human demodicosis is mainly associated with systemic or local immunosuppression." [3] This is referring to a paper published in 2014 "to classify human demodicosis into a primary form and a secondary form." [4] While acknowledging the work of Dr. Chen and Dr. Plewig, whether you refer to demodicosis or demodectic rosacea we are referring to the same condition. The term 'demodectic rosacea' was coined by Dr. Plewig in an email to the RRDi on March 2, 2007 where Dr. Plewig wrote, "Concerning your questiones, demodicosis can be a disease by itself and thus being independent of rosacea. Or demodex mites heavily colonize pre-existing rosacea and thus lead to demodectic rosacea (rosaceiform dermatosis). This is a rather complicated issue. Rosacea is usually diagnosed by inspection [of] the eye. Laboratory tests are rarely needed, for instance in gram-negative rosacea, where one needs bacteriology. The same is true for demodectic rosacea, where one has to demonstrate the mites in great numbers." [5] The RRDi has simplified this complicated issue by calling it demodectic rosacea, a variant of rosacea.

    Current concepts on rosacea is a video presentation by the Charles Institute of Dermatology, University College Dublin with Frank Powell, MD who interviews Fabienne Fortan, MD, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium explaining demodectic rosacea:

    Controversy for Over a Hundred Years

    Demodetic Rosacea has a long history of controversy which continues to this day. For example, note the following quote recorded more than 135 years ago:
    "From these and other statements it is seen that in suggesting the thought that these minute forms of life are etiological factors in even some of the phases of acneform diseases, I shall be but little in accord with the highest authorities. In antagonism to these views, I may say that the results of my observations appear to indicate a close relationship of the parasites with the diseased condition."
    Demodex Folliculorum in Diseased Conditions of the Human Face
    Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists, Vol. 8, 1886, page 123, Published by: Wiley-Blackwell

    Rosacea Variant

    Demodectic Rosacea is also known as, Demodex Dermatitis, Demodecidosis, Demodex Folliculorum, Demodicidosis, Demodicosis, Pityriasis Folliculorum, Rosacea-like Demodicidosis [8], Unilateral rosacea, Unilateral Demodicidosis, Unitaleral Demodex sp. folliculitis [7], and possibly other names for this variant of rosacea. 

    "Granulomatous rosacea is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease with an unknown origin. The role of Demodex follicularum in its pathogenesis is currently proved." [9]

    For a comprehensive article on demodectic rosacea and why it is considered a rosacea variant click here.

    Dr. Leyda Bowes discusses demodectic rosacea (demodicosis) in this short video: 

     

    Controversy Continues
    The role of demodex in rosacea has a long history and continues to this day. [10] It should be ruled out in a diagnosis of rosacea or it is possible that your rosacea is, in fact, demodectic rosacea. 

    If your dermatologist dismisses demodectic rosacea you might refer to this page, the Demodex Mite Videos available for viewing as well as this comprehensive article and comprehensive list of medical papers on this subject. Also we have an extensive category on demodectic rosacea in our member forum here: 

    Forum Home >  Forums >  Public Forum >  Rosacea Topics > Demodectic Rosacea (Members Only)

    Demodex Update • Soolantra • (Members Only)

    Just think if 10K members of the RRDi each donated one dollar and insisted on supporting a reputable clinician to study what they wanted, supporting their own research, what might be discovered? This can only happen if enough rosaceans like you want it to happen. Or you can continue to do nothing and let the skin industry status quo research continue on. If you want independent rosacea research you can help. [6]

    End Notes

    [1] Image of Demodex Folliculorum courtesy of National Geographic - by Darlyne A. Murawski

    [2] Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2020 Oct 23;:
    The Pathogenic Role of Demodex Mites in Rosacea: A Potential Therapeutic Target Already in Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea?
    Forton FMN

    [3] Iran J Parasitol. 2017 Jan-Mar; 12(1): 12–21.
    PMCID: PMC5522688
    Human Permanent Ectoparasites; Recent Advances on Biology and Clinical Significance of Demodex Mites: Narrative Review Article
    Dorota LITWIN, WenChieh CHEN, Ewa DZIKA, and Joanna KORYCIŃSKA

    [4] Br J Dermatol. 2014 Jun;170(6):1219-25. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12850.
    Human demodicosis: revisit and a proposed classification.
    Chen W, Plewig G.

    [5] Read end note 7 in the article, Demodectic Rosacea [Variant]

    [6] Rosacea Research in Perspective of Idiopathic Diseases
    Rosacea Research in Perspective of Funding

    [7] PubMed RSS Feed - -Unilateral rosacea, unilateral demodicidosis, unitaleral Demodex sp. folliculitis: three names for the same disease

    [8] Demodectic Rosacea (Variant) 

    [9] J Med Case Rep. 2017; 11: 230. Published online 2017 Aug 20. doi:  10.1186/s13256-017-1401-5 PMCID: PMC5563383
    Granulomatous rosacea: a case report
    A. Kelati and F. Z. Mernissi

    [10] The controversy is still acknowledged in the following paper published in 2022: 

    "Rosacea and demodicosis are common facial conditions in dermatology practice. While demodicosis is clearly the result of Demodex mite infestation, the pathogenicity of rosacea is still not sufficiently explained, so that it is defined by its symptoms, and not by its cause. It is usually considered as a disease of the immune system associated with neurogenic inflammation triggered by various factors (ultraviolet light, heat, spicy food, alcohol, stress, microorganisms). Its links with demodicosis remain controversial, although there is increasing evidence that Demodex mites may play a key role in the inflammatory process."

    PubMed RSS Feed - -Rosacea, an infectious disease: why rosacea with papulopustules should be considered a demodicosis. A narrative review

     



  • Posts

    • Redox Biol. 2022 Aug 5;55:102427. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2022.102427. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activated proinflammatory signals in keratinocytes play a crucial role in the immunoregulation of inflammatory skin diseases, including rosacea and psoriasis. Nav1.8 is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel, and its abnormal expression in the epidermal layer contributes to pain hypersensitivity in the skin. However, whether and how epidermal Nav1.8 is involved in skin immunoregulation remains unclear. This study was performed to identify the therapeutic role of Nav1.8 in inflammatory skin disorders. We found that Nav1.8 expression was significantly upregulated in the epidermis of rosacea and psoriasis skin lesions. Nav1.8 knockdown ameliorated skin inflammation in LL37-and imiquimod-induced inflammation mouse models. Transcriptome sequencing results indicated that Nav1.8 regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL1β and IL6) in keratinocytes, thereby contributing to immune infiltration in inflammatory skin disorders. In vitro, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a cytokine that drives the development of various inflammatory skin disorders, increased Nav1.8 expression in keratinocytes. Knockdown of Nav1.8 eliminated excess ROS production, thereby attenuating the TNFα-induced production of inflammatory mediators; however, a Nav1.8 blocker did not have the same effect. Mechanistically, Nav1.8 reduced superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) activity by directly binding to SOD2 to prevent its deacetylation and mitochondrial localization, subsequently inducing ROS accumulation. Collectively, our study describes a central role for Nav1.8 in regulating pro-inflammatory responses in the skin and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for rosacea and psoriasis. PMID:35952475 | DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2022.102427 {url} = URL to article
    • Ann Dermatol. 2022 Aug;34(4):261-269. doi: 10.5021/ad.21.223. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a pathophysiological mechanism that remains unclear. Recently, dysregulation of the sensory nerve system has been implicated in the development of this condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of capsaicin on neuroinflammatory mediators in rosacea. In addition, this study aimed to evaluate the attenuating effects of capsazepine, a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist. METHODS: We obtained skin tissue from both rosacea patients and normal individuals for an in vivo study. In addition, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were cultured, and treated with capsaicin and capsazepine for an in vitro study. Quantitative changes in neuroinflammatory mediators were evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: The data showed the increase of TRPV1, TRPV4, cathelicidin (LL37) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in skin tissue by real-time PCR. In addition, the data showed that cathelicidin (LL37), kallikrein-5 (KLK-5), TNF-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) increased in capsaicin-treated NHEKs. Capsazepine attenuated the expression of TRPV1 and other mediators, except for IL-8, in capsaicin-treated NHEKs. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that TRPV1, TRPV4, cathelicidin (LL37) and TNF-α are increased in rosacea skin, and that capsaicin is associated with increase of neuroinflammatory mediators such as LL37, KLK-5, TNF-α, VEGF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, and PAR2. Modulators or inhibitors of neuroinflammatory mediators including TRPV1 could be potential therapeutic option in the treatment of patients with rosacea. PMID:35948328 | DOI:10.5021/ad.21.223 {url} = URL to article If you want to deep dive into this subject it is related to the Immune System Disorder Theory which one of many theories on the cause of rosacea. Find more information here (requires subscription😞 https://irosacea.org/forums/forum/67-immune-system-disorder-theory/
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