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    Welcome to the Rosacea Research and Development Institute [RRDi] official web site. The RRDi is a grassroots  501 (c) 3 non profit organization for rosacea patient advocacy unlike any other rosacea non profit organization. If you suffer from rosacea you are a rosacean. Finding the cure for rosacea through research is our goal (read our mission statement for a complete list of our goals). Our website is 'everything rosacea.'   Our website is now a subscription based members only website where only members can post. We rely on a donation of $12/year so we can keep this website going. Guests may view and read about 95% of our website but are not allowed to post. Please register and donate $12 for a twelve month subscription (minimum is $2/donation for one month access) to post. Thanks for your donation! We need 100 active subscribers!


    Guests or Inactive vs Active Members


    Guests and Inactive members can only view about 95%of our rosacea content on this website. You may post on our website if you register an account and subscribe. Membership is subscription based. Learn moreBeginning February 10, 2022 all inactive members will have to purchase a subscription to be active again to be able to post for a minimum of $2 for one month ($1/month for three or more months). Guests will not have to purchase a subscription to view our website but are not allowed to post. We need 100 active subscribers!

    Why not read the recent activity and pick a topic that interests you? 

    RRDi Videos • FAQs • In our menu, use FORUMS or SITE INDEX to browse our website. 

    We are rosaceans and this is a grassroots rosacea non profit organization. Read more About the RRDi.

    If you are a novice or a professional we are accepting papers on rosacea subjects to be published in the next edition of the Journal of the RRDi.

    The above question is probably the most frequently asked question on the internet about rosacea. Click here for the answer 

    Download our mobile app! •  YouTube Videos •

    Where to Begin Your Search 
    We first of all warmly invite you to join the RRDi as an active member with just your email address. This opens up to you a huge amount of rosacea data that can help you in your search for rosacea treatment as well as gives you an opportunity to engage with other rosaceans which is part of our core mission. Guests can check our feedback forum, and are allowed in the following areas of our website, but are not allowed to post.


    Want your own free private rosacea blog? • Open a rosacea club! (members only) • Guests 

    Recommend you read our FAQs for at least a half hour. Afterwards, browse our public member forum for another half hour once you have access to our member forums. If you are concerned about your privacy when joining our non profit as a member, we have several options which are discussed below by scrolling to 'How to Join' in the third paragraph under that subheading which explains those options. We take your privacy very seriously and our privacy policy is second to none! 

    Active Members
    Once you join the RRDi you must remain an active member (either a volunteer or a subscriber) to continue to have access to our website in the member forums and post


    What is Rosacea?
    Rosacea is a chronic and sometimes progressive disorder of the face, characterized by some or all of the following symptoms:

    Extremely sensitive facial skin with blushing, flushing, permanent redness, burning, stinging, swelling, papules, pustules, broken red capillary veins, red gritty eyes (which can lead to visual disturbances) and in more advanced cases, a disfiguring bulbous nose. Men and women of all ages can be affected, with over 415 million estimated rosacea sufferers worldwide

    Most links below require you to subscribe. 

    "Rosacea is probably a collection of many different diseases that are lumped together inappropriately." Zoe Diana Draelos, MD. 
    Dr. Draelos is a member of the ROSIE [ROSacea International Expert] Group that says the subtype classification of rosacea is controversial. Dr. Draelos is also a member of the RRDi MAC. Just because you have a red face might mean you have another skin condition instead of or with rosacea, since other skin conditions may co-exist with rosaceamimic rosacea or you might have a rosacea variant (over a dozen variants to differentiate).  

    "Rosacea is a multifactorial, hyper-reactivity, vascular and neural based disease with a broad range of facial manifestations where normal vasodilation is greater and more persistent and involves an autoimmune component of microscopic amounts of extravasated plasma induce localized dermal inflammation that may induce repeated external triggers, vasodilation, telangiectasias, redness with eventual fibrosis and hypertrophic scarring of the dermis." Sandra Cremers, M.D., F.A.C.S., RRDi MAC Member.

    If you note, there are different definitions of what constitutes rosacea which is common. Clarity with phenotypes (see below) helps in a differential diagnosis

    In November 2016, the RRDi endorsed the phenotype classification of rosacea which was announced by the ROSCO panel as a better approach of diagnosising rosacea than using subtypes. If your dermatologist still refers to subtypes, he/she is not keeping up with the latest classification of rosacea and you should point this out to your physician. Learn more about phenotypes

    Rosacea Differential Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis
    Your physician should differentiate rosacea from a plethora of other skin conditions. If you need photos of rosacea click here.

    Sometimes rosacea is misdiagnosed.

    'There are a number of topical, oral and systemic treatments available. Yet, treatment for rosacea remains difficult." Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy 

    “There’s no one treatment that’s going to work for everybody, but we evaluate each patient individually and try to select the treatments from our armamentarium that we think will be the simplest and safest for long-term control.” John Meisenheimer, MD, Orlando, The City's Magazine

    "Ultimately, rosacea is a subjective and entirely individual experience." Rosacea: Beyond the visable

    There are prescription, non prescription and natural or alternative treatments (check out our affiliate store) for rosacea that the RRDi keeps up with and posts on our website. Volunteer Members also contribute to the website. You will not find any other website about rosacea that has more information on rosacea than the RRDi. None. The RRDi website is a wealth of rosacea data found no where else on the internet (you can google and find rosacea information and the results will include what is categorized in appropriate places on our website). Volunteers make sure of this. You can join and continue to add to the rosacea data. Isn't that what volunteering is all about? 

    Cause of Rosacea
    No one really knows what causes rosacea and there are a number of theories for your consideration. Our latest article on this subject, Rosacea Theories Revisited is worth your time to consider. 

    What will the RRDi Do For Me?
    If you are a rosacea newbie read this post. You can view the list of prescription treatments prescribed for rosacea. There is a list of non prescription treatments for rosacea to consider. We have an affiliate store dedicated to rosacea books, treatments and odd and ends. You can browse our public member forum and learn about rosacea. The digital medical revolution can assist you in your search for a treatment to improve your condition. Your rosacea is an individual case and you may find what treatment will work for your rosacea and not a treatment aimed at the masses. Rosaceans can come together and share data, using collaboration tools that the RRDi offers for free. If you have the volunteer spirit and want to become part of this innovative non profit, learn how you can volunteer and be part of this digital medical revolution. You can post in our member forum if you join and register simply with an email address. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you join you have a number of tools to collaborate with other members. You can create your own rosacea blog, with easy step by step directions on how to do this. Our Gallery application lets members share photos and videos with the community. One other tool you can use is setting up your own Club

    Volunteers who contribute their time and energy may receive a free G Suite account through a generous contribution of Google, one of our sponsors.  

    You may receive a free ebook, Rosacea 101: Includes the Rosacea Diet as a gift from the founder/director if you mention in your registration application that you want the free ebook (write in the volunteer box you want the free ebook). If you are already a member and want the ebook just fill out the contact form and request a copy

    You can post in our member forum about your rosacea experience. However, we want real members, not spammers, hackers or trolls. We provide a safe, secure forum for our members, so our membership registration is very secure requiring your accepting our terms for membership.

    Our 2016 Rosacea Survey is completed and available for public viewing.  You may review a list of our education grants. Finally, ask not what the RRDi can do for you, ask.....

    What Can You Do for the RRDi?
    Your joining and registering with our organization will increase our membership. All that is required to join is an email address (your email address is private and members never see your email address nor does the RRDi give your private email address out to anyone). Our goal is to reach a membership of 10,000 members. Think about that, 10,000 rosacea sufferers joined together as a non profit organization and you are member. We need you to join to help us reach this goal!

    The RRDi is a volunteeer member driven organization and invites rosacea sufferers to become involved. Volunteering is the force that drives the organization and is an integral spirit of the RRDi philosophy. The RRDi warmly invites rosacea sufferers to participate in this non profit which you can become a part of. You are not required to volunteer when you join, since we still want you to join even if you can't volunteer. If all you can do is become a member, that will increase our membership which is helpful in itself. So if you can volunteer, let us know on when you register. Or just join with an email address and let us know later you want to volunteer. Please join or public forum. Or you may prefer our new private forum

    Please carefully read the next subheading on how to join and if you have concerns about privacy. 

    How to Join
    Subscribe. To post in our Member Forum or submit articles for publication you must register to join to become a member. The RRDi no longer requires that you provide us with your contact info and mailing address to be a non voting member. However you still need to agree to our policies, rules, etc., since you become a member of the RRDi whether a voting member or not. If you want to vote, simply include all the profile contact fields. We have over 1000 members who are voting members, so we have plenty. It is your choice if you want to vote or not. 

    If you need assistance contact us. Our volunteers will be happy to assist you. 

    Your privacy is our utmost concern and we will take precautions to ensure your privacy will never be violated. Our Privacy Policy is solid. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you have joined you can post in our secure members forum which will allow you to post questions to the Medical Advisory Consultants (MAC) and to fellow members or to submit articles for our journal. Yes, members may have an article published on our web site or in our journal. You may receive a free G Suite account with our organization if you have the volunteer spirit. 

    Charter and Mission Statement
    The Charter of the Corporation states the purpose and Mission Statement which clearly outlines the goals of our non profit corporation. If you are interested in the history of how and why this non profit organization was formed click here for more information

    Of course there are expenses to keep this non profit organization going. Any donation you give will assist us to continue to keep this web site going, publish our journal, and sponsor education grantsMahalo for your donation. even if it is small. Every dollar helps us keep going.  

    The RRDi is registered at GuideStar



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    • "Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin disorder mediated by the dysregulation of both keratinocytes and T cells. Here, we report that aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a channel protein that mediates the transport of water/glycerol, was highly expressed in the epidermis and CD4+ T cells of both rosacea patients and experimental mice....Our findings reveal that AQP3-mediated activation of NF-κB in keratinocytes and activation of STAT3 in CD4+ T cells acted synergistically and contributed to the inflammation in rosacea." [1] "Aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) is the protein product of the human AQP3 gene." [2] "Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels that facilitate transepithelial water transport across plasma membranes following an osmotic gradient [3]. AQPs are glycosylated integral membrane proteins and widely expressed in bacteria (for review [4]), yeast [5], plants [6] (for review [7]), and mammals..." [3] Obviously we need more rosacea research on this subject. Do you want to support such targeted research? Join the RRDi and post in this thread. A Graphical abstract of AQP3 [4] End Notes [1] PubMed RSS Feed - -Targeting Aquaporin-3 Attenuates Skin Inflammation in Rosacea  [2] Aquaporin-3, Wikipedia [3] Aquaporin-3 in Cancer Saw Marlar, Helene H. Jensen, Frédéric H. Login, and Lene N. Nejsum Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Oct; 18(10): 2106. Published online 2017 Oct 7. doi: 10.3390/ijms18102106 [4] Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes Volume 1861, Issue 4, 1 April 2019, Pages 768-775 Single-channel permeability and glycerol affinity of human aquaglyceroporin AQP3 Roberto A. Rodriguez, Huiyun Liang, Liao Y. Chen, Germán Plascencia-Villa, George Perry 
    • "In fact, rosacea might be underreported and underdiagnosed in populations with skin of color because of the difficulty of discerning erythema and telangiectasia in dark skin. The susceptibility of persons with highly pigmented skin to dermatologic conditions like rosacea, whose triggers include sun exposure, is probably underestimated. Many people with skin of color who have rosacea might experience delayed diagnosis, leading to inappropriate or inadequate treatment; greater morbidity; and uncontrolled, progressive disease with disfiguring manifestations, including phymatous rosacea." Global epidemiology and clinical spectrum of rosacea, highlighting skin of color: Review and clinical practice experience Andrew F. Alexis MD, MPH, Valerie D. Callender MD, Hilary E. Baldwin MD, Seemal R. Desai MD, Marta I. Rendon MD, Susan C. Taylor MD  Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Volume 80, Issue 6, June 2019, Pages 1722-1729.e7
    • In  2004, it has been stated that "The economic burden of skin disease on the US healthcare was approximately $96 billion in 2004. [1] "In 2013, more than 85 million Americans were seen by a medical professional for skin diseases. The United States healthcare system alone is estimated to spend approximately 75 billion dollars annually to treat skin diseases. Additionally, the prevalence of skin disease increases to almost 50% in Americans 65 years of age or older). Moreover, it is estimated that the population over the age of 65 will almost double in the United States in the next 30 years, leading to an inevitable increase in annual healthcare costs for skin disease treatment." [2] This expenditure is on all skin conditions. A "Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the rosacea treatment market, which was USD 1.8 billion in 2022, would rocket up to USD 2.6 billion by 2030 and is expected to undergo a CAGR of 6.1% during the forecast period of 2023 to 2030." - Global Rosacea Treatment Market, DBMR  How much is spent on rosacea in the USA?  Rosacea How many of those billions are spent on rosacea? As the above figures shows it is in the millions of dollars.  "In 2013, the costs associated with the treatment and lost productivity among those who sought medical care for rosacea was $243 million." [2] Between 2002 and 2005, for an individual patient, "Of the total healthcare costs, annual rosacea-related expenditures were $276; approximately 70% of rosacea-related expenditures were due to prescription drugs. [3]  In 2013, "The treatment of rosacea incurred primarily pharmacy rather than medical costs. The median annual pharmacy costs, by type of therapy, were: $285 for combination therapy $142 for a topical medication $63 for an oral antibiotic agent." [4] In 2014, the NRS states, "The lack of health insurance or the amount of the required co-pay kept 47 percent of the survey respondents from obtaining medical care for their rosacea at some point.  And 56 percent reported they had paid out-of-pocket for a rosacea-related medication or procedure not covered by their insurance policy.  Of those answering the survey, the amount paid out of pocket was less than $100 for 33 percent, between $100 and $500 for 35 percent, between $500 and $1,000 for 12 percent and greater than $1,000 for 11 percent." [6] End Notes [1] Bickers DR, Lim HW, Margolis D, et al; for the American Academy of Dermatology Association, and the Society for Investigative Dermatology. The burden of skin diseases: 2004 a joint project of the American Academy of Dermatology Association and the Society for Investigative Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55: 490-500. [2] Aquaporin-3 in the epidermis: more than skin deep Wendy B. Bollag, Lorry Aitkens, Joseph White, and Kelly A. Hyndman Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2020 Jun 1; 318(6): C1144–C1153. Published online 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00075.2020 [3] SKIN CONDITIONS BY THE NUMBERS, AAD [4] Healthcare utilization and costs of patients with rosacea in an insured population Michael Romanowicz, Judith J Stephenson, James Q Del Rosso, Greg Lenhart Dermatol. 2008 Jan;7(1):41-9. Healthcare utilization and costs of patients with rosacea in an insured population [5] Cost and Drug Utilization Patterns Associated with the Management of Rosacea Caroline Helwick, Medical Writer Am Health Drug Benefits. 2013 Nov-Dec; 6(9): 583–584. [6] New Survey Shows Insurance Covers Medication For Most, NRS
    • Int J Dermatol. 2023 Nov 29. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16950. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38031285 | DOI:10.1111/ijd.16950 {url} = URL to article
    • PubMed RSS Feed - -Successful Treatment of Granulomatous Rosacea by JAK Inhibitor Abrocitinib: A Case Report If you are taking vandetanib read this:  PubMed RSS Feed - -Dark perifollicular macules and granulomatous rosacea secondary to vandetanib
    • "Trichoscopy is a method of hair and scalp evaluation and is used for diagnosing hair and scalp diseases. The method is based on dermoscopy." [1] "In many cases the combination of clinical examination and trichoscopy is sufficient for establishing the correct diagnosis....The most characteristic features of scalp rosacea are perifollicular scaling and arborizing vessels." [2] Why I like trichoscopy? Professor Lidia Rudnicka End Notes [1] Trichoscopy, Wikipedia [2] PubMed RSS Feed - -Differential diagnosis of red scalp. The importance of trichoscopy image courtesy of Wikipedia Commons
    • Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2023 Nov 20;16:3369-3374. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S440138. eCollection 2023. ABSTRACT Granulomatous rosacea (GR) is a rare inflammatory skin disease characterized by persistent, hard, yellow, brown, red, or flesh-colored papules, plaques, or nodules on the face. Limited data are available on patients treated for GR, with only case reports and case series published. Herein, we describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented to the hospital with persistent red to brown and pink patches on both cheeks accompanied by a burning sensation for one month. Histopathological examination of a cutaneous biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation in focal areas. Both acid-fast and Periodic acid-Schiff staining were negative. The patient was diagnosed with GR based on her clinical presentation and laboratory test results. She was treated with abrocitinib, a JAK-1 inhibitor, for 20 weeks. This resulted in substantial improvement in her rash and the associated burning sensation. Subsequent follow-up visits indicated no adverse effects or relapses. Additionally, a literature review was conducted to compare with the current case, which concluded that abrocitinib is a viable treatment option for GR, exhibiting a relatively high safety profile with minimal side effects. PMID:38021428 | PMC:PMC10674708 | DOI:10.2147/CCID.S440138 {url} = URL to article
    • Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2023 Nov 18;16:3363-3368. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S441581. eCollection 2023. ABSTRACT An abnormal density of Demodex mites can trigger many skin disorders known as demodicosis. Clinical manifestations of demodicosis may resemble other skin diseases and can coexist with other skin disorders, resulting in underdiagnosis and a more challenging diagnosis. Here, we report three cases of demodicosis in acne vulgaris patients. These case series have discussed their clinical features along with optimal strategies for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:38021431 | PMC:PMC10664713 | DOI:10.2147/CCID.S441581 {url} = URL to article
    • Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2023 Oct;40(5):642-646. doi: 10.5114/ada.2023.130523. Epub 2023 Aug 22. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The relationship between rosacea and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is still not known. Almost all reports questioning the relation between BCC and rosacea are focused on rhinophyma. AIM: To examine the possible connection of BCC and rosacea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 110 patients with BCC located on the face treated surgically in the Dermatosurgery Unit in 2020-2021 were included in the study. A trained dermatologist assessed the presence or absence of concomitant rosacea and assessed its severity according to the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA). RESULTS: Fifty-one (46.4%) subjects with BCC and concomitant clinically diagnosed rosacea were found. In our group 35.5% of women had BCC located on the cheeks, while in men most cancers were located on the nose (55%, n = 11), however this difference has not reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of rosacea in our population was undoubtedly higher, comparing to the normative population. Both rosacea and BCC share the same risk factors - UV exposure, the potential association should not be neglected. PMID:38028413 | PMC:PMC10646708 | DOI:10.5114/ada.2023.130523 {url} = URL to article
    • "Conclusions Patients with rosacea seem to have increased risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms also in general population. Physicians treating patients with rosacea should pay more attention to the psychosocial health of patients." Association of rosacea with depressive and anxiety symptoms: a general population study  
    • Int J Dermatol. 2023 Nov 28. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16920. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by remissions and flares. Although the rosacea active treatment phase is well established, the long-term maintenance phase is still challenging. OBJECTIVE: To discuss and make recommendations on how to treat patients during the long-term maintenance phase for the main rosacea phenotypes. METHODS: A panel of six board-certified Brazilian dermatologists and one American dermatologist gathered to compose a consensus based upon an initial statement on how to treat rosacea during the long-term maintenance phase based on the methodology Nominal Group Technique. The experts discussed each factor based upon an initial statement on how to treat rosacea patients in the long-term maintenance phase. A sequence of comprehensive narrative reviews was performed; a questionnaire preparation about the definition of the maintenance phase and its management was presented; an interpersonal discussion and ranking of the ideas were conducted. Recommendations were made if the specialists had 75% agreement. RESULTS: The maintenance treatment phase, which starts by achieving IGA 0 or 1 grades at the active phase, should be considered at least during the 9-month period after remission. The recommendations of all treatments target this period. Daily skincare regimen and sunscreen are crucial. Active treatment phase should be recommended if signs or symptoms reappear or worsen. CONCLUSION: Maintenance phase success depends on patient's adherence to daily skin care, appropriate treatments, continued follow-up with dermatologist, and self-assessment to identify new signs and symptoms indicating disease relapse. PMID:38013632 | DOI:10.1111/ijd.16920 {url} = URL to article
    • Res Sq. 2023 Nov 17:rs.3.rs-3611240. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-3611240/v1. Preprint. ABSTRACT More than 20% of the population across the world is affected by non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, rosacea, etc. Many of these chronic diseases are painful and debilitating with limited effective therapeutic interventions. However, recent advances in psoriasis treatment have improved the effectiveness and provide better management of the disease. This study aims to identify common regulatory pathways and master regulators that regulate molecular pathogenesis. We designed an integrative systems biology framework to identify the significant regulators across several inflammatory skin diseases. With conventional transcriptome analysis, we identified 55 shared genes, which are enriched in several immune-associated pathways in eight inflammatory skin diseases. Next, we exploited the gene co-expression-, and protein-protein interaction-based networks to identify shared genes and protein components in different diseases with relevant functional implications. Additionally, the network analytics unravels 55 high-value proteins as significant regulators in molecular pathogenesis. We believe that these significant regulators should be explored with critical experimental approaches to identify the putative drug targets for more effective treatments. As an example, we identified IKZF1 as a shared significant master regulator in three inflammatory skin diseases, which can serve as a putative drug target with known disease-derived molecules for developing efficacious combinatorial treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa, atopic dermatitis, and rosacea. The proposed framework is very modular, which can indicate a significant path of molecular mechanism-based drug development from complex transcriptomics data and other multi-omics data. PMID:38014119 | PMC:PMC10680929 | DOI:10.21203/rs.3.rs-3611240/v1 {url} = URL to article
    • Skin Res Technol. 2023 Nov;29(11):e13525. doi: 10.1111/srt.13525. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38009046 | DOI:10.1111/srt.13525 {url} = URL to article
    • J Dermatol. 2023 Nov 27. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.17051. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Granulomatous rosacea (GR) is a rare and distinct variant of rosacea. We report three cases of recalcitrant GR successfully treated with pulsed-dye laser (PDL) and provide experimental evidence supporting its potential as a treatment option. PDL treatment demonstrated remarkable efficacy in the three clinical cases, despite their resistance to conventional therapies. Chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), a key chemokine involved in inflammation and granuloma formation, was found to be increased in skin sections from all three patients. In vitro experiments using human monocytes and dermal fibroblasts demonstrated that PDL treatment significantly reduced CXCL9 expression in fibroblasts. These findings suggest that PDL may modulate CXCL9 secretion in fibroblasts, potentially limiting the recruitment of immune cells to the lesion. Although further research is needed to fully understand the precise mechanisms underlying the role of CXCL9 in GR, PDL may be a promising therapeutic approach for refractory GR. PMID:38009832 | DOI:10.1111/1346-8138.17051 {url} = URL to article
    • Clin Exp Dermatol. 2023 Nov 27:llad417. doi: 10.1093/ced/llad417. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38011317 | DOI:10.1093/ced/llad417 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatology. 2023 Nov 26. doi: 10.1159/000535034. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Background The association between rosacea and psychiatric comorbidity has been reported previously. However, there is a lack of general population studies about this subject area. Objectives To study the association between rosacea with depressive and anxiety symptoms at population level. Methods A clinical whole-body examination was performed by dermatologists for 1,932 subjects belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study during the 46-year follow-up survey. The presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was gathered by using validated Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) included into the self-administered questionnaires. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between rosacea and psychological symptoms. Results Rosacea was found in dermatological evaluation in 15.1% of the study subject (n=292). In logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for confounding factors, those with rosacea had 1.6-fold (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.32) risk for psychiatric symptoms according to HSCL-25 when compared with controls. In separate analyses of HSCL-25 depression subscale, the risk was increased especially for depressive symptoms OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.10-2.18). Conclusions Patients with rosacea seem to have increased risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms also in general population. Physicians treating patients with rosacea should pay more attention to the psychosocial health of patients. PMID:38008081 | DOI:10.1159/000535034 {url} = URL to article
    • Clin Geriatr Med. 2024 Feb;40(1):11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2023.09.007. Epub 2023 Oct 20. ABSTRACT Inflammatory skin conditions affect people of all ages, genders, and races. These common conditions are frequent causes of visits to the dermatologist. The geriatric population is often afflicted by these conditions because many are chronic and relapsing diseases. These inflammatory conditions include but are not limited to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, and Grover disease. Chronic inflammatory skin conditions place a large burden on the health care system in the United States and have many associated comorbidities. This article discusses these inflammatory dermatoses that affect the geriatric population and common therapeutic options. PMID:38000855 | DOI:10.1016/j.cger.2023.09.007 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2023 Nov 22. doi: 10.1111/jocd.16094. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The link between rosacea and various systemic conditions has been growing in prominence, even though the relationship between rosacea and cardiovascular disease remains a subject of debate in current research. AIMS: Detecting the connection between rosacea and subclinical atherosclerosis using laboratory and ultrasonographic parameters. METHODS: Fifty rosacea patients and 49 control were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, including serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fetuin-A (FA), and matrix gla protein levels were assessed. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was measured by carotid ultrasonography. RESULTS: Serum hs-CRP levels (p = 0.009) and mean CIMT (p = 0.001) were significantly higher, while serum FA levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the rosacea patients compared with control. The number of patients with mean CIMT>75th percentile according to age and sex were significantly higher in the rosacea group (p = 0.001). Rosacea patients with ocular involvement exhibited significantly higher hs-CRP values in comparison to those without ocular involvement (p = 0.008). No significant correlation was detected between disease duration, severity, subtype and the study parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This study results suggest that rosacea poses an independent risk for subclinical atherosclerosis regardless of its severity, duration, or subtype. Therefore, individuals diagnosed with rosacea should receive careful evaluation and monitoring to detect possible cardiovascular complications promptly. Furthermore, our study hints at a potential elevated risk of subclinical inflammation in rosacea patients with ocular involvement, warranting additional attention and further investigation. PMID:37994275 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.16094 {url} = URL to article
    • Drugs Aging. 2023 Nov 22. doi: 10.1007/s40266-023-01079-5. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Though more common earlier in life, increasing attention is being focused on the development of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) in patients with advancing age. Studies show that CLE is more common in older populations than previously thought, and all CLE subtypes are possible in this group. Just like patients in the third or fourth decade of life, CLE may appear alongside or independent of systemic lupus erythematosus. Older populations manifesting CLE for the first time seem to have a lower risk of progression to systemic disease than younger peers, and are more commonly White. CLE must be carefully distinguished from other skin conditions that have a predilection for presentation in older populations, including rosacea, lichen planus, and other autoimmune conditions such as dermatomyositis or pemphigus/pemphigoid. It is thought that most CLE in older populations is drug-induced, with drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus being the most common subtype. Management of CLE in older patients focuses on eliminating unnecessary medications known to induce CLE, and otherwise treatment proceeds similarly to that in younger patients, with a few special considerations. PMID:37991658 | DOI:10.1007/s40266-023-01079-5 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatol Pract Concept. 2023 Oct 1;13(4):e2023230. doi: 10.5826/dpc.1304a230. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, personal protective equipment, particularly face masks, became an essential requirement to engage in various activities. Several articles reported an increase of recurrences of dermatologic facial diseases (ie, acne, rosacea) related to mask use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the number of recurrences of rosacea related to face mask use. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on adult patients with a pre-pandemic diagnosis of mild and moderate papulopustular rosacea. All patients had previously achieved either partial or complete remission after a 4-month treatment with topical ivermectin in 2019. We collected data in two different phases characterized by different intensity of mask use during the pandemic and post-pandemic period. We collected data through clinical assessment of the disease, questionnaires on personal habits and standardized skin surface biopsy to study the Demodex mites count. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 30 patients. In the pandemic period, 5/30 patients had a relapse of mild papulopustular rosacea; the Demodex sample resulted positive in 4/5 relapsed patients. In the post-pandemic period, 4/30 patients reported a relapse of mild rosacea (3 patients) and moderate papulopustular rosacea (1 patient). At the Demodex exam, 1/4 relapsed patients resulted positive. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant increase in relapses of papulopustular rosacea during the pandemic. An appropriate anti-parasitic treatment may reduce the number of recurrences due to mask use. PMID:37992377 | PMC:PMC10656128 | DOI:10.5826/dpc.1304a230 {url} = URL to article
    • Adv Skin Wound Care. 2023 Dec 1;36(12):626-634. doi: 10.1097/ASW.0000000000000065. ABSTRACT GENERAL PURPOSE: To review the clinical presentation and treatment of rosacea. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant will:1. Distinguish the clinical manifestations of rosacea subtypes.2. Identify pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options for patients who have rosacea. PMID:37983575 | DOI:10.1097/ASW.0000000000000065 {url} = URL to article
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