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    Welcome to the Rosacea Research and Development Institute [RRDi] official web site. The RRDi is a grassroots  501 (c) 3 non profit organization for rosacea patient advocacy unlike any other rosacea non profit organization. If you suffer from rosacea you are a rosacean. Finding the cure for rosacea through research is our goal (read our mission statement for a complete list of our goals). Our website is 'everything rosacea.'   

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    Guests vs Active Members

     

    Guests and Inactive members can only view about 25% of our rosacea content on this website. You can gain access to all the rosacea data on our website if you register an account. Membership is free. Learn more

    Why not read the recent activity and pick a topic that interests you?

    RRDi Videos • FAQs (Requires you Join) • In our menu, use FORUMS or SITE INDEX to browse our website. 

    We are rosaceans and this is a grassroots rosacea non profit organization. Read more About the RRDi.

    If you are a novice or a professional we are accepting papers on rosacea subjects to be published in the next edition of the Journal of the RRDi.

    IS THIS ROSACEA?
    The above question is probably the most frequently asked question on the internet about rosacea. Click here for the answer 

    Download our mobile app! • Win a free jar of the ZZ Cream?  • YouTube Videos •

    Where to Begin Your Search 
    We first of all warmly invite you to join the RRDi as an active member with just your email address. This opens up to you a huge amount of rosacea data that can help you in your search for rosacea treatment as well as gives you an opportunity to engage with other rosaceans which is part of our core mission. Guests who are not comfortable registering may post in our feedback forum, and are allowed in the following areas of our website, but are not allowed into the following forums available to active members:

    ACTIVE MEMBERS ONLY ARE ALLOWED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS

    MORE INFORMATION AVAILABLE HERE:

    Simple Rosacea Regimen • YouTube Videos • Rosacea Topics Corona Virus and RosaceaCoronavirus with Personal Protective Equipment • Does Rosacea Progress In Stages?Will I Develop Rhinophyma? • Community Support • What Causes Rosacea? • What Should I Ask My Physician?  Rosacea Newbies Gold Standard for Rosacea Treatment • When Rosacea Resists Standard Therapies • Rosacea X-Factor • Famous Rosaceans  Rosacea in the News  Rosacea Research in Perspective of Idiopathic Diseases • Rosacea Research in Perspective of Funding • Rosacea : A Chronic Inflammatory Disease • What is the Butterfly Effect in Rosacea? •  More is Better vs Less is MoreTapatalk • RRDi Tee ShirtsContact us • Site Index • Read the Recent Activity • 

    Want your own free private rosacea blog? • Open a rosacea club! (members only) • Guests can leave feedback without registering an account.

    Recommend you read our FAQs for at least a half hour. Afterwards, browse our public member forum for another half hour once you have access to our member forums. If you are concerned about your privacy when joining our non profit as a member, we have several options which are discussed below by scrolling to 'How to Join' in the third paragraph under that subheading which explains those options. We take your privacy very seriously and our privacy policy is second to none! 

    Active Members
    Once you join the RRDi you must remain an active member to continue to have access to our website in the member forums. An active member is defined at this post. All that is required to register to be an active member is an email address (what is required to join a rosacea social media group?) and post a minimum of one post a month. Registration is free. 

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    What is Rosacea?
    Rosacea is a chronic and sometimes progressive disorder of the face, characterized by some or all of the following symptoms:

    Extremely sensitive facial skin with blushing, flushing, permanent redness, burning, stinging, swelling, papules, pustules, broken red capillary veins, red gritty eyes (which can lead to visual disturbances) and in more advanced cases, a disfiguring bulbous nose. Men and women of all ages can be affected, with over 415 million estimated rosacea sufferers worldwide

    "Rosacea is probably a collection of many different diseases that are lumped together inappropriately." Zoe Diana Draelos, MD. 
    Dr. Draelos is a member of the ROSIE [ROSacea International Expert] Group that says the subtype classification of rosacea is controversial. Dr. Draelos is also a member of the RRDi MAC. Just because you have a red face might mean you have another skin condition instead of or with rosacea, since other skin conditions may co-exist with rosaceamimic rosacea or you might have a rosacea variant (over a dozen variants to differentiate).  

    "Rosacea is a multifactorial, hyper-reactivity, vascular and neural based disease with a broad range of facial manifestations where normal vasodilation is greater and more persistent and involves an autoimmune component of microscopic amounts of extravasated plasma induce localized dermal inflammation that may induce repeated external triggers, vasodilation, telangiectasias, redness with eventual fibrosis and hypertrophic scarring of the dermis." Sandra Cremers, M.D., F.A.C.S., RRDi MAC Member.

    If you note, there are different definitions of what constitutes rosacea which is common. Clarity with phenotypes (see below) helps in a differential diagnosis

    Phenotypes
    In November 2016, the RRDi endorsed the phenotype classification of rosacea which was announced by the ROSCO panel as a better approach of diagnosising rosacea than using subtypes. If your dermatologist still refers to subtypes, he/she is not keeping up with the latest classification of rosacea and you should point this out to your physician. Learn more about phenotypes

    Rosacea Differential Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis
    Your physician should differentiate rosacea from a plethora of other skin conditions. If you need photos of rosacea click here.

    Sometimes rosacea is misdiagnosed.

    Treatment
    'There are a number of topical, oral and systemic treatments available. Yet, treatment for rosacea remains difficult." Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy 

    “There’s no one treatment that’s going to work for everybody, but we evaluate each patient individually and try to select the treatments from our armamentarium that we think will be the simplest and safest for long-term control.” John Meisenheimer, MD, Orlando, The City's Magazine

    ""Ultimately, rosacea is a subjective and entirely individual experience." Rosacea: Beyond the visable

    There are prescription, non prescription and natural or alternative treatments (check out our affiliate store) for rosacea that the RRDi keeps up with and posts on our website. Volunteer Members also contribute to the website. You will not find any other website about rosacea that has more information on rosacea than the RRDi. None. The RRDi website is a wealth of rosacea data found no where else on the internet (you can google and find rosacea information and the results will include what is categorized in appropriate places on our website). Volunteers make sure of this. You can join and continue to add to the rosacea data. Isn't that what volunteering is all about? 

    Cause of Rosacea
    No one really knows what causes rosacea and there are a number of theories for your consideration. Our latest article on this subject, Rosacea Theories Revisited is worth your time to consider. 

    What will the RRDi Do For Me?
    If you are a rosacea newbie read this post. You can view the list of prescription treatments prescribed for rosacea. There is a list of non prescription treatments for rosacea to consider. We have an affiliate store dedicated to rosacea books, treatments and odd and ends. You can browse our public member forum and learn about rosacea. The digital medical revolution can assist you in your search for a treatment to improve your condition. Your rosacea is an individual case and you may find what treatment will work for your rosacea and not a treatment aimed at the masses. Rosaceans can come together and share data, using collaboration tools that the RRDi offers for free. If you have the volunteer spirit and want to become part of this innovative non profit, learn how you can volunteer and be part of this digital medical revolution. You can post in our member forum if you join and register simply with an email address. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you join you have a number of tools to collaborate with other members. You can create your own rosacea blog, with easy step by step directions on how to do this. Our Gallery application lets members share photos and videos with the community. One other tool you can use is setting up your own Club

    Volunteers who contribute their time and energy may receive a free G Suite account through a generous contribution of Google, one of our sponsors.  

    You may receive a free ebook, Rosacea 101: Includes the Rosacea Diet as a gift from the founder/director if you mention in your registration application that you want the free ebook (write in the volunteer box you want the free ebook). If you are already a member and want the ebook just fill out the contact form and request a copy

    You can post in our member forum about your rosacea experience. However, we want real members, not spammers, hackers or trolls. We provide a safe, secure forum for our members, so our membership registration is very secure requiring your accepting our terms for membership.

    Our 2016 Rosacea Survey is completed and available for public viewing.  You may review a list of our education grants. Finally, ask not what the RRDi can do for you, ask.....

    What Can You Do for the RRDi?
    Your joining and registering with our organization will increase our membership. All that is required to join is an email address (your email address is private and members never see your email address nor does the RRDi give your private email address out to anyone). Our goal is to reach a membership of 10,000 members. Think about that, 10,000 rosacea sufferers joined together as a non profit organization and you are member. We need you to join to help us reach this goal!

    The RRDi is a volunteeer member driven organization and invites rosacea sufferers to become involved. Volunteering is the force that drives the organization and is an integral spirit of the RRDi philosophy. The RRDi warmly invites rosacea sufferers to participate in this non profit which you can become a part of. You are not required to volunteer when you join, since we still want you to join even if you can't volunteer. If all you can do is become a member, that will increase our membership which is helpful in itself. So if you can volunteer, let us know on when you register. Or just join with an email address and let us know later you want to volunteer. Please join or public forum. Or you may prefer our new private forum

    Please carefully read the next subheading on how to join and if you have concerns about privacy. 

    How to Join
    Members may now join with just an email address and a display name (your first and last name is no longer required to be a non voting member and you can set up a anonymous or cryptic display name so that no one knows who you are). To post in our Member Forum or submit articles for publication you must register to join to become a member. The RRDi no longer requires that you provide us with your contact info and mailing address to be a non voting member. However you still need to agree to our policies, rules, etc., since you become a member of the RRDi whether a voting member or not. If you want to vote, simply include all the profile contact fields. We have over 1000 members who are voting members, so we have plenty. It is your choice if you want to vote or not. 

    If you need assistance contact us. Our volunteers will be happy to assist you. 

    Your privacy is our utmost concern and we will take precautions to ensure your privacy will never be violated. Our Privacy Policy is solid. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you have joined you can post in our secure members forum which will allow you to post questions to the Medical Advisory Consultants (MAC) and to fellow members or to submit articles for our journal. Yes, members may have an article published on our web site or in our journal. You may receive a free G Suite account with our organization if you have the volunteer spirit. 

    Charter and Mission Statement
    The Charter of the Corporation states the purpose and Mission Statement which clearly outlines the goals of our non profit corporation. If you are interested in the history of how and why this non profit organization was formed click here for more information

    Of course there are expenses to keep this non profit organization going. Any donation you give will assist us to continue to keep this web site going, publish our journal, and sponsor education grantsMahalo for your donation. even if it is small. Every dollar helps us keep going.  

    The RRDi is registered at GuideStar

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    • Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.1007/s13555-021-00613-w. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common among people with rosacea. However, the exact magnitude of the prevalence rate and odds ratios (ORs) for depression and anxiety, respectively, in rosacea patients is unclear, and no systematic review or meta-analysis of published data has yet been performed. We therefore performed as systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in rosacea patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, Embase and Medline databases for all observational studies published up to October 2020 that reported the prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. The primary outcome measures were prevalence rates and ORs for depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 14,134,021 patients with rosacea were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of depression was 19.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0-24.3%) and that of anxiety was 15.6% (95% CI 11.8-19.3%). The prevalence of depression and anxiety was significantly lower in studies using clinical criteria to diagnose depression and anxiety (9.2 and 10.2%, respectively) than in those studies using screening tools (26.2% [P < 0.01] and 22.7% [P = 0.03], respectively). The methodological quality of the included studies greatly contributed to the heterogeneity. Patients with rosacea were more likely to experience depression (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.79-2.72) and anxiety (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.56-3.44) than healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that patients with rosacea are at a higher risk of experiencing depression and anxiety. More efforts are warranted to recognize and manage depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea. PMID:34657997 | DOI:10.1007/s13555-021-00613-w {url} = URL to article
    • Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2021 Aug;38(4):590-596. doi: 10.5114/ada.2021.108917. Epub 2021 Sep 17. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, immune system disorders, Demodex infestation, neurovascular dysregulation and oxidative stress are thought to be contributory factors in the pathogenesis of rosacea. AIM: To evaluate the presence of Demodex mites, the morphologic features of the nailfold capillaries, and the systemic oxidative stress status in patients with rosacea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed with rosacea and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects were included in this prospective case-control study. The presence of Demodex infestation, the findings of nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), and the status of systemic oxidative stress measured by total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. RESULTS: Demodex infestation rates were significantly higher in rosacea patients than in controls (p = 0.001). Increases in the diameters of the capillaries and the presence of avascular areas and crossing and abnormal structures were significantly more common in rosacea patients than in the healthy controls (p < 0.01, p = 0.016, p = 0.02, p < 0.001, respectively), and hairpin structures were significantly less common in rosacea patients than in the controls (p < 0.001). The presence of crossing capillaries was positively correlated with higher TOC levels (p = 0.05), while abnormal structures were found to be correlated with lower levels of TAC (p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative status and NFC may play diagnostic and prognostic roles in rosacea, which should be confirmed by studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:34658699 | PMC:PMC8501418 | DOI:10.5114/ada.2021.108917 {url} = URL to article
    • J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Oct 17. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17758. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Few studies have investigated the relationship between rosacea and upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, with two studies reporting conflicting data that patients with rosacea are at higher risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).1, 2 Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate a potential relationship between rosacea and GI disorders with a focus on the upper GI tract defined as the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. PMID:34661953 | DOI:10.1111/jdv.17758 {url} = URL to article
    • Cureus. 2021 Aug 31;13(8):e17617. doi: 10.7759/cureus.17617. eCollection 2021 Aug. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The multifactorial nature of rosacea and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) pathogenesis complicates the achievement of satisfactory treatment outcomes. 13C urea breath test (UBT) has been identified as an accurate, non-invasive, and quick procedure to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with high sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to assess the correlation between H. pylori infection and rosacea and CSU patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients with rosacea and CSU in the dermatology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. History and physical examination were performed by a dermatologist. H. pylori 13C-UBT detection was performed in all subjects. RESULTS: In total, 114 patients were included in this current study, with 41 rosacea and 73 urticaria patients. The vast majority of our subjects were females (96.5%). The mean (±SD) age was 42.3 (±12.7). More than half (58.8%) of the examined samples were positive for 13C-UBT; however, positive results were significantly higher in the rosacea patients (73.2%) compared to the urticaria group (50.7%), with a p-value of 0.019. CONCLUSION: Our findings underline the significant association of H. pylori with rosacea and CSU regardless of the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. We thus recommend the inclusion of H. pylori testing in the routine workup of CSU and rosacea patients. PMID:34646668 | PMC:PMC8483814 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.17617 {url} = URL to article
    • Acta Derm Venereol. 2021 Oct 13. doi: 10.2340/actadv.v101.356. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Rosacea, a chronic condition usually recognized by its visible presentation, can be accompanied by invisible symptoms, such as burning and stinging. This aim of this review is to gather the most recent evidence on burning and stinging, in order to further emphasize the need to address these symptoms. Inflammatory pathways can explain both the signs and symptoms of rosacea, but available treatments are still evaluated primarily on their ability to treat visible signs. Recent evidence also highlights the adverse impact of symptoms, particularly burning and stinging, on quality of life. Despite an increasing understanding of symptoms and their impact, the management of burning and stinging as part of rosacea treatment has not been widely investigated. Clinicians often underestimate the impact of these symptoms and do not routinely include them as part of management. Available therapies for rosacea have the potential to treat beyond signs, and improve burning and stinging symptoms in parallel. Further investigation is needed to better understand these benefits and to optimize the management of rosacea. PMID:34643244 | DOI:10.2340/actadv.v101.356 {url} = URL to article More Information on Burning and Stinging in Rosacea
    • If you have been diagnosed with Phenotype 5, it usually responds to treatment quite well. We have a list of treatment options to consider listed in this post which requires you join the RRDi as an active member to view. Have you been diagnosed with Phenotype 5? What 2 prescription treatments have you used?
    • Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2021 Oct 2;14:1393-1400. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S322876. eCollection 2021. ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Although acne vulgaris (AV) is a common disease and can persist into adulthood, there are few large-scale epidemiological studies on the prevalence of acne vulgaris in adults. The aim of our study was to characterise the epidemiology and comorbidity of acne vulgaris in working adults in Germany. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within the framework of a cross-sectional study, a total of 161,269 employees underwent dermatological whole-body examinations in more than 500 German companies between 2001 and 2016. Point prevalence rates for acne vulgaris and further skin diseases and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated and differences between participants with and without acne vulgaris were tested with chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 43.2 years ± 10.9, 55.5% were male. In total, n = 5311 people (3.3%) with acne vulgaris were identified. Prevalence decreased by age. Controlling for age and gender, acne was significantly associated with folliculitis (OR = 1.91; CI: 1.76-2.07), contact dermatitis (OR = 1.74; CI: 1.08-2.81), rosacea (OR = 1.74; CI: 1.40-2.15), pyoderma (OR = 1.58; 1.22-2.06), seborrheic dermatitis (OR = 1.47; CI: 1.27-1.71), hand eczema (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.00-1.76), verruca vulgaris plantaris (OR = 1.29; CI: 1.09-1.51), tinea pedis (OR = 1.27; CI: 1.10-1.47), spider veins (OR = 1.26; CI: 1.16-1.38) and telangiectasia (OR = 1.15; CI: 1.02-1.30). CONCLUSION: These data underline the importance of acne vulgaris in the adult population. Further studies to better understand the pathophysiology of AV and its comorbidity in different phases of adulthood would be desirable to develop appropriate guidelines and therapy concepts. PMID:34629884 | PMC:PMC8495148 | DOI:10.2147/CCID.S322876 {url} = URL to article
    • first you stop consuming alcohol completely and see the result after one month. I am not saying that alcohol is causing your rosacea getting worsen but Sometimes it happens that any trigger which causes flare-ups, if we consume them only once would immediately cause flare-ups. This is only to see whether alcohol is your trigger or not and please share your results.
    • Guest Jennifer
      I have rosacea on my nose.  I have had it for 3 years, with little notice, but now it is getting really bad with bigger pores and bumps getting bigger and bigger on top and sides of my nose.  I have taken the  2 prescription medications recommended with poor results.  I have had it scraped 1 time 2 years ago but it did nothing.  I have alcohol a couple times a month.  Does anyone know what can slow down the process on the nose please?
    • Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed). 2021 Oct;96(10):556-560. doi: 10.1016/j.oftale.2020.07.008. Epub 2021 Sep 24. ABSTRACT Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a recently described and rare condition. It is considered a form of infantile granulomatous rosacea. IFAG with facial and eyelid nodules is very rare. A description is presented of three cases of IFAG eyelid nodules. They concern healthy children with no history of trauma. Biopsy examination revealed non-caseating inflammatory granulomas. Different medical treatments have been tried that seem to accelerate its healing, although its tendency is spontaneous resolution within several months. Painless recurrent eyelid nodules can be confused with chalazion. The diagnosis of IFAG should be considered in chronic eyelid nodules. PMID:34620487 | DOI:10.1016/j.oftale.2020.07.008 {url} = URL to article
    • Skin Appendage Disord. 2021 Aug;7(5):382-386. doi: 10.1159/000514565. Epub 2021 Apr 26. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Scalp rosacea is scarcely reported in the literature, but it is probably not uncommon. Trichoscopic findings have not been specifically established for this entity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report 4 cases of chronic scalp rosacea with trichoscopic evidence of peripilar scaling that resolved without scarring after treatment. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Chronic and persistent inflammation around the isthmus produced in scalp rosacea may form peripilar scaling resembling that found in lichen planopilaris. PMID:34604328 | PMC:PMC8436626 | DOI:10.1159/000514565 {url} = URL to article
    • Only little group study with 14 candidates will not suffice the result of alcohol consumption not as a risk factor in rosacea and we over and over say that every rosacea person has different triggers associated with them and depends on the the degree of alcohol consumption just like any other intake triggers.
    • Yes it is a growing concern because it could be possible that no antibiotic will be left to cure the diseases in future because bacteria could develop resistance to every antibiotic since we are using antibiotics without any concern and knowledge and antibiotic stewardship programs make aware people and physicians of antibiotic prescription and use. I have covered these topics earlier here and here.
    • Yes it is likely possible that following mohs surgery, rosacea can exacerbate in patient because in mohs surgery, the cancer skin is excised and removed and the normal skin tissue is not disturbed but following skin excision and removal, the normal skin environment is disturbed and so it can cause rosacea exacerbation.
    • Yes because anything which comes into contact with skin, skin has resident immune cells and they are primarily come into rescue just like army men and mast cells are one of them. They play a key role as army men. So it would be a better immunotherapy if we target mast cells.
    • and anything which you are consuming a lot may cause trigger. Drink but one or two times a day and see if it changes anything because you need to watch what triggers you or what not.
    • Green tea hasn't been on an rosacea trigger list. What is on most rosacea trigger lists is HOT BEVERAGES may cause a flush, whether it is green tea, black tea, white tea, coffee, hot water, etc.  FOR MORE INFORMATION
    • If you are a RRDi member, you need to login to your account. Then simply post anywhere guests are able to post, like this thread where you asked this question. That reactivates your account. Once you are reactivated, under your display name it shows 'Active Member.' This gives you 30 days of access to our website where guests are restricted. If you haven't posted in the last thirty days your account is then deactivated. Repeat the process to re-activate your account.  If you remember the email address you used to register your account but forgot the password, use the forgot password tool to reactivate your account:  https://irosacea.org/lostpassword/ If you don't remember your login credentials, our volunteers can assist. Use the contact form and give us what you remember you used to register your account, i.e., your display name?  We can then reset your password for you if we can figure out what EMAIL you used to register your account.   
    • Is green tea a trigger?  I drink a lot every day.  I don't seem to notice a difference after I drink it.  Could it just be affecting my baseline redness?
    • I'm trying to activate my account.  Any help?
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Sep 28. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14483. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects people's life quality. It has been found to be related to many detrimental factors including ultraviolet exposure. However, the association between alcohol consumption and rosacea has long been debated. AIMS: To elucidate this association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature published before February 16, 2021 on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database and used a meta-analytic approach to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Finally, 14 eligible studies were identified, and alcohol consumption was not found to be a risk factor for rosacea. However, in subgroup analysis, alcohol consumption increased the risk of phymatous rosacea (PhR) and the pooled OR was 4.17 (95% CI = 1.76-9.91). CONCLUSION: Overall, our study showed that alcohol consumption was a risk factor in phymatous rosacea (PhR). More studies of rosacea investigating sex distribution, alcohol intake levels, and types of alcoholic beverages consumed are needed in the future. PMID:34582097 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.14483 {url} = URL to article More information on Alcohol and Rosacea
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