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    Welcome to the Rosacea Research and Development Institute [RRDi] official web site. The RRDi is a grassroots  501 (c) 3 non profit organization for rosacea patient advocacy unlike any other rosacea non profit organization. If you suffer from rosacea you are a rosacean. Finding the cure for rosacea through research is our goal (read our mission statement for a complete list of our goals). Our website is 'everything rosacea.'   Our website is now a subscription based members only website where only members can post. We rely on a donation of $12/year so we can keep this website going. Guests may view and read about 95% of our website but are not allowed to post. Please register and donate $12 for a twelve month subscription (minimum is $2/donation for one month access) to post. Thanks for your donation! We need 100 active subscribers!


    Guests or Inactive vs Active Members


    Guests and Inactive members can only view about 95%of our rosacea content on this website. You may post on our website if you register an account and subscribe. Membership is subscription based. Learn moreBeginning February 10, 2022 all inactive members will have to purchase a subscription to be active again to be able to post for a minimum of $2 for one month ($1/month for three or more months). Guests will not have to purchase a subscription to view our website but are not allowed to post. We need 100 active subscribers!

    Why not read the recent activity and pick a topic that interests you? 

    RRDi Videos • FAQs • In our menu, use FORUMS or SITE INDEX to browse our website. 

    We are rosaceans and this is a grassroots rosacea non profit organization. Read more About the RRDi.

    If you are a novice or a professional we are accepting papers on rosacea subjects to be published in the next edition of the Journal of the RRDi.

    The above question is probably the most frequently asked question on the internet about rosacea. Click here for the answer 

    Download our mobile app! •  YouTube Videos •

    Where to Begin Your Search 
    We first of all warmly invite you to join the RRDi as an active member with just your email address. This opens up to you a huge amount of rosacea data that can help you in your search for rosacea treatment as well as gives you an opportunity to engage with other rosaceans which is part of our core mission. Guests can check our feedback forum, and are allowed in the following areas of our website, but are not allowed to post.


    Want your own free private rosacea blog? • Open a rosacea club! (members only) • Guests 

    Recommend you read our FAQs for at least a half hour. Afterwards, browse our public member forum for another half hour once you have access to our member forums. If you are concerned about your privacy when joining our non profit as a member, we have several options which are discussed below by scrolling to 'How to Join' in the third paragraph under that subheading which explains those options. We take your privacy very seriously and our privacy policy is second to none! 

    Active Members
    Once you join the RRDi you must remain an active member (either a volunteer or a subscriber) to continue to have access to our website in the member forums and post


    What is Rosacea?
    Rosacea is a chronic and sometimes progressive disorder of the face, characterized by some or all of the following symptoms:

    Extremely sensitive facial skin with blushing, flushing, permanent redness, burning, stinging, swelling, papules, pustules, broken red capillary veins, red gritty eyes (which can lead to visual disturbances) and in more advanced cases, a disfiguring bulbous nose. Men and women of all ages can be affected, with over 415 million estimated rosacea sufferers worldwide

    Most links below require you to subscribe. 

    "Rosacea is probably a collection of many different diseases that are lumped together inappropriately." Zoe Diana Draelos, MD. 
    Dr. Draelos is a member of the ROSIE [ROSacea International Expert] Group that says the subtype classification of rosacea is controversial. Dr. Draelos is also a member of the RRDi MAC. Just because you have a red face might mean you have another skin condition instead of or with rosacea, since other skin conditions may co-exist with rosaceamimic rosacea or you might have a rosacea variant (over a dozen variants to differentiate).  

    "Rosacea is a multifactorial, hyper-reactivity, vascular and neural based disease with a broad range of facial manifestations where normal vasodilation is greater and more persistent and involves an autoimmune component of microscopic amounts of extravasated plasma induce localized dermal inflammation that may induce repeated external triggers, vasodilation, telangiectasias, redness with eventual fibrosis and hypertrophic scarring of the dermis." Sandra Cremers, M.D., F.A.C.S., RRDi MAC Member.

    If you note, there are different definitions of what constitutes rosacea which is common. Clarity with phenotypes (see below) helps in a differential diagnosis

    In November 2016, the RRDi endorsed the phenotype classification of rosacea which was announced by the ROSCO panel as a better approach of diagnosising rosacea than using subtypes. If your dermatologist still refers to subtypes, he/she is not keeping up with the latest classification of rosacea and you should point this out to your physician. Learn more about phenotypes

    Rosacea Differential Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis
    Your physician should differentiate rosacea from a plethora of other skin conditions. If you need photos of rosacea click here.

    Sometimes rosacea is misdiagnosed.

    'There are a number of topical, oral and systemic treatments available. Yet, treatment for rosacea remains difficult." Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy 

    “There’s no one treatment that’s going to work for everybody, but we evaluate each patient individually and try to select the treatments from our armamentarium that we think will be the simplest and safest for long-term control.” John Meisenheimer, MD, Orlando, The City's Magazine

    "Ultimately, rosacea is a subjective and entirely individual experience." Rosacea: Beyond the visable

    There are prescription, non prescription and natural or alternative treatments (check out our affiliate store) for rosacea that the RRDi keeps up with and posts on our website. Volunteer Members also contribute to the website. You will not find any other website about rosacea that has more information on rosacea than the RRDi. None. The RRDi website is a wealth of rosacea data found no where else on the internet (you can google and find rosacea information and the results will include what is categorized in appropriate places on our website). Volunteers make sure of this. You can join and continue to add to the rosacea data. Isn't that what volunteering is all about? 

    Cause of Rosacea
    No one really knows what causes rosacea and there are a number of theories for your consideration. Our latest article on this subject, Rosacea Theories Revisited is worth your time to consider. 

    What will the RRDi Do For Me?
    If you are a rosacea newbie read this post. You can view the list of prescription treatments prescribed for rosacea. There is a list of non prescription treatments for rosacea to consider. We have an affiliate store dedicated to rosacea books, treatments and odd and ends. You can browse our public member forum and learn about rosacea. The digital medical revolution can assist you in your search for a treatment to improve your condition. Your rosacea is an individual case and you may find what treatment will work for your rosacea and not a treatment aimed at the masses. Rosaceans can come together and share data, using collaboration tools that the RRDi offers for free. If you have the volunteer spirit and want to become part of this innovative non profit, learn how you can volunteer and be part of this digital medical revolution. You can post in our member forum if you join and register simply with an email address. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you join you have a number of tools to collaborate with other members. You can create your own rosacea blog, with easy step by step directions on how to do this. Our Gallery application lets members share photos and videos with the community. One other tool you can use is setting up your own Club

    Volunteers who contribute their time and energy may receive a free G Suite account through a generous contribution of Google, one of our sponsors.  

    You may receive a free ebook, Rosacea 101: Includes the Rosacea Diet as a gift from the founder/director if you mention in your registration application that you want the free ebook (write in the volunteer box you want the free ebook). If you are already a member and want the ebook just fill out the contact form and request a copy

    You can post in our member forum about your rosacea experience. However, we want real members, not spammers, hackers or trolls. We provide a safe, secure forum for our members, so our membership registration is very secure requiring your accepting our terms for membership.

    Our 2016 Rosacea Survey is completed and available for public viewing.  You may review a list of our education grants. Finally, ask not what the RRDi can do for you, ask.....

    What Can You Do for the RRDi?
    Your joining and registering with our organization will increase our membership. All that is required to join is an email address (your email address is private and members never see your email address nor does the RRDi give your private email address out to anyone). Our goal is to reach a membership of 10,000 members. Think about that, 10,000 rosacea sufferers joined together as a non profit organization and you are member. We need you to join to help us reach this goal!

    The RRDi is a volunteeer member driven organization and invites rosacea sufferers to become involved. Volunteering is the force that drives the organization and is an integral spirit of the RRDi philosophy. The RRDi warmly invites rosacea sufferers to participate in this non profit which you can become a part of. You are not required to volunteer when you join, since we still want you to join even if you can't volunteer. If all you can do is become a member, that will increase our membership which is helpful in itself. So if you can volunteer, let us know on when you register. Or just join with an email address and let us know later you want to volunteer. Please join or public forum. Or you may prefer our new private forum

    Please carefully read the next subheading on how to join and if you have concerns about privacy. 

    How to Join
    Subscribe. To post in our Member Forum or submit articles for publication you must register to join to become a member. The RRDi no longer requires that you provide us with your contact info and mailing address to be a non voting member. However you still need to agree to our policies, rules, etc., since you become a member of the RRDi whether a voting member or not. If you want to vote, simply include all the profile contact fields. We have over 1000 members who are voting members, so we have plenty. It is your choice if you want to vote or not. 

    If you need assistance contact us. Our volunteers will be happy to assist you. 

    Your privacy is our utmost concern and we will take precautions to ensure your privacy will never be violated. Our Privacy Policy is solid. If you have concerns regarding your privacy, please consider this post.

    Once you have joined you can post in our secure members forum which will allow you to post questions to the Medical Advisory Consultants (MAC) and to fellow members or to submit articles for our journal. Yes, members may have an article published on our web site or in our journal. You may receive a free G Suite account with our organization if you have the volunteer spirit. 

    Charter and Mission Statement
    The Charter of the Corporation states the purpose and Mission Statement which clearly outlines the goals of our non profit corporation. If you are interested in the history of how and why this non profit organization was formed click here for more information

    Of course there are expenses to keep this non profit organization going. Any donation you give will assist us to continue to keep this web site going, publish our journal, and sponsor education grantsMahalo for your donation. even if it is small. Every dollar helps us keep going.  

    The RRDi is registered at GuideStar



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    • Exp Dermatol. 2024 Apr;33(4):e15081. doi: 10.1111/exd.15081. ABSTRACT The close interaction between skin and clothing has become an attractive cornerstone for the development of therapeutic textiles able to alleviate skin disorders, namely those correlated to microbiota dysregulation. Skin microbiota imbalance is known in several skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, acne and hidradenitis suppurative (HS). Such microbiota dysregulation is usually correlated with inflammation, discomfort and pruritus. Although conventional treatments, that is, the administration of steroids and antibiotics, have shown some efficacy in treating and alleviating these symptoms, there are still disadvantages that need to be overcome. These include their long-term usage with side effects negatively impacting resident microbiota members, antibiotic resistance and the elevated rate of recurrence. Remarkably, therapeutic textiles as a non-pharmacological measure have emerged as a promising strategy to treat, alleviate the symptoms and control the severity of many skin diseases. This systematic review showcases for the first time the effects of therapeutic textiles on patients with skin dysbiosis, focusing on efficacy, safety, adverse effects and antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The main inclusion criteria were clinical trials performed in patients with skin dysbiosis who received treatment involving the use of therapeutic textiles. Although there are promising outcomes regarding clinical parameters, safety and adverse effects, there is still a lack of information about the impact of therapeutic textiles on the skin microbiota of such patients. Intensive investigation and corroboration with clinical trials are needed to strengthen, define and drive the real benefit and the ideal biomedical application of therapeutic textiles. PMID:38628046 | DOI:10.1111/exd.15081 {url} = URL to article
    • JAMA Dermatol. 2024 Apr 17. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2024.0408. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE: Treatment of erythema and flushing in rosacea is challenging. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been associated with the pathogenesis of rosacea, raising the possibility that inhibition of the CGRP pathway might improve certain features of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of erenumab, an anti-CGRP-receptor monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of rosacea-associated erythema and flushing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This single-center, open-label, single-group, nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted between June 9, 2020, and May 11, 2021. Eligible participants included adults with rosacea with at least 15 days of either moderate to severe erythema and/or moderate to extreme flushing. No concomitant rosacea treatment was allowed throughout the study period. Visits took place at the Danish Headache Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants received 140 mg of erenumab subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. A safety follow-up visit was performed at week 20. Data analysis occurred from January 2023 to January 2024. INTERVENTION: 140 mg of erenumab every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean change in the number of days with moderate to extreme flushing during weeks 9 through 12, compared with the 4-week run-in period (baseline). The mean change in number of days with moderate to severe erythema was a secondary outcome. Adverse events were recorded for participants who received at least 1 dose of erenumab. Differences in means were calculated with a paired t test. RESULTS: A total of 30 participants (mean [SD] age, 38.8 [13.1] years; 23 female [77%]; 7 male [23%]) were included, of whom 27 completed the 12-week study. The mean (SD) number of days with moderate to extreme flushing was reduced by -6.9 days (95% CI, -10.4 to -3.4 days; P < .001) from 23.6 (5.8) days at baseline. The mean (SD) number of days with moderate to severe erythema was reduced by -8.1 days (95% CI, -12.5 to -3.7 days; P < .001) from 15.2 (9.1) days at baseline. Adverse events included transient mild to moderate constipation (10 participants [33%]), transient worsening of flushing (4 participants [13%]), bloating (3 participants [10%]), and upper respiratory tract infections (3 participants [10%]), consistent with previous data. One participant discontinued the study due to a serious adverse event (hospital admission due to gallstones deemed unrelated to the study), and 2 participants withdrew consent due to lack of time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that erenumab might be effective in reducing rosacea-associated flushing and chronic erythema (participants generally tolerated the treatment well, which was consistent with previous data), and that CGRP-receptor inhibition holds potential in the treatment of erythema and flushing associated with rosacea. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this finding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04419259. PMID:38630457 | DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2024.0408 {url} = URL to article
    • JAMA Dermatol. 2024 Apr 17. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2024.0397. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38630466 | DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2024.0397 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cutan Pathol. 2024 Apr 13. doi: 10.1111/cup.14623. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory condition that usually presents with erythema, scaly greasy papules, and plaques affecting sebaceous gland-rich areas and predominantly involving the face and scalp. The diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis can often be rendered based on the clinical presentation. However, in certain cases, a biopsy can be useful to distinguish it from clinical mimics such as psoriasis, discoid lupus, and rosacea. Prominent sebaceous gland atrophy without scarring has been well-described as an important and relatively specific clue for psoriatic or drug-induced alopecia. However, sebaceous gland atrophy is not specific to psoriasis and has been demonstrated in seborrheic dermatitis, facial discoid dermatitis, and potentially may occur in other inflammatory dermatoses of the scalp. We report a 23-year-old female patient presenting with non-scarring hair loss and histopathological findings demonstrating mild androgenetic alopecia and changes of seborrheic dermatitis with dramatic sebaceous gland atrophy. The patient had no history or evidence of psoriasis clinically. Our case suggests that in patients with seborrheic dermatitis, sebaceous gland atrophy may complicate the evaluation of alopecia biopsies and should be recognized as a pitfall. Seborrheic dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of alopecia biopsies showing prominent sebaceous gland atrophy. PMID:38613429 | DOI:10.1111/cup.14623 {url} = URL to article
    • An Bras Dermatol. 2024 Apr 12:S0365-0596(24)00037-0. doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2023.07.005. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of rosacea on ocular surface changes such as alterations in dry eye parameters, corneal densitometry, and aberrations, in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 88 eyes of 44 patients diagnosed with rosacea and 88 eyes of 44 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive dermatologic and ophthalmic examination and Tear Break-Up Time (TBUT) and Schirmer-1 tests were performed. The rosacea subtype and Demodex count and OSDI scores of all participants were recorded. Corneal topographic, densitometric, and aberrometric measurements were obtained using the Scheimpflug imaging system. RESULTS: The mean age of the 44 patients was 41.2 ± 11.0 years of whom 31 (70.5%) were female. The mean TBUT and Schirmer-1 test values were significantly decreased and OSDI scores were significantly increased in the rosacea group compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01 for all). The most common subtype of rosacea was erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (70.4%). The severity grading of rosacea revealed that 18 (40.9%) patients had moderate erythema. The median (min-max) Demodex count was 14.0 (0-120) and the disease duration was 24.0 (5-360) months. The comparison of the corneal densitometry values revealed that the densitometry measurements in all concentric zones, especially in central and posterior zones were higher in rosacea patients. Corneal aberrometric values in the posterior surface were also lower in the rosacea group compared to healthy controls. The topographic anterior chamber values were significantly lower in the rosacea group. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size, variable time interval to hospital admission, and lack of follow-up data are among the limitations of the study. Future studies with larger sample sizes may also enlighten the mechanisms of controversial anterior segment findings by evaluating rosacea patients who have uveitis and those who do not. CONCLUSION: Given the fact that ocular signs may precede cutaneous disease, rosacea is frequently underrecognized by ophthalmologists. Therefore, a comprehensive examination of the ocular surface and assessment of the anterior segment is essential. The main priority of the ophthalmologist is to treat meibomian gland dysfunction and Demodex infection to prevent undesired ocular outcomes. PMID:38614939 | DOI:10.1016/j.abd.2023.07.005 {url} = URL to article
    • Cureus. 2024 Mar 12;16(3):e56025. doi: 10.7759/cureus.56025. eCollection 2024 Mar. ABSTRACT Ivermectin was first discovered in the 1970s by Japanese microbiologist Satoshi Omura and Irish parasitologist William C. Campbell. Ivermectin has become a versatile pharmaceutical over the past 50 years. Ivermectin is a derivative of avermectin originally used to treat parasitic infections. Emerging literature has suggested that its role goes beyond this and may help treat inflammatory conditions, viral infections, and cancers. Ivermectin's anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anticancer effects were explored. Its traditional mechanism of action in parasitic diseases, such as scabies and malaria, rests on its ability to interfere with the glutamate-gated chloride channels in invertebrates and the lack of P-glycoprotein in many parasites. More recently, it has been discovered that the ability of ivermectin to block the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of the activated B (NF-κB) pathway that modulates the expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines is implicated in its role as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat rosacea. Ivermectin has also been evaluated for treating infections caused by viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and adenoviruses, through inhibition of viral protein transportation and acting on the importin α/β1 interface. It has also been suggested that ivermectin can inhibit the proliferation of tumorigenic cells through various pathways that lead to the management of certain cancers. The review aimed to evaluate its multifaceted effects and potential clinical applications beyond its traditional use as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:38606261 | PMC:PMC11008553 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.56025 {url} = URL to article
    • J Cosmet Dermatol. 2024 Apr 10. doi: 10.1111/jocd.16300. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Pulsed-dye lasers (PDL) are one of the standard therapies for rosacea, but alternatives are needed. AIMS: To compare the efficacy and safety of the variable-sequenced, large-spot 532 nm KTP laser to the 595 nm PDL in treating rosacea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, controlled, evaluator-blinded study. Patients were treated with either a KTP or PDL with 1-3 sessions at intervals of 6-8 weeks. A follow-up visit was scheduled on Week 6 post-treatment. Clinical outcome was assessed by computer-assisted analysis and by patients and two blinded dermatologists. Pain intensity during treatment and adverse events were documented. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (mean age 51 years) were allocated in a 2:1 ratio to either the KTP or PDL. Erythema in both treatment arms decreased significantly (p < 0.01). Clinical evaluation revealed high improvement. Mean pain intensity was significantly lower with the KTP (2.5/10) than with the PDL (4.1/10). Both lasers showed a good safety profile. Relevant purpura was only seen in the PDL group. CONCLUSIONS: Both the variable-sequenced, large-spot KTP and the PDL demonstrated comparable efficacy in treatment of rosacea. Regarding safety, the KTP exhibited fewer post-treatment reactions. The KTP might serve as a potential alternative to PDL in the treatment of rosacea. PMID:38600654 | DOI:10.1111/jocd.16300 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatol Surg. 2024 Apr 9. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000004192. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38595166 | DOI:10.1097/DSS.0000000000004192 {url} = URL to article
    • J Am Acad Dermatol. 2024 Apr 7:S0190-9622(24)00571-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2024.03.042. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38593974 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2024.03.042 {url} = URL to article
    • Front Med (Lausanne). 2024 Mar 22;11:1322685. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1322685. eCollection 2024. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rosacea, a chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting millions worldwide, is influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although gut microbiota's role in skin health is well-acknowledged, definitive causal links between gut microbiota and rosacea remain under-explored. METHODS: Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design, this study examined potential causal relationships between gut microbiota and rosacea. Data was sourced from the largest Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) for gut microbiota and the FinnGen biobank for rosacea. A total of 2078 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with gut microbiota were identified and analyzed using a suite of MR techniques to discern causal effects. RESULTS: The study identified a protective role against rosacea for two bacterial genera: phylum Actinobacteria and genus Butyrivibrio. Furthermore, 14 gut microbiota taxa were discovered to exert significant causal effects on variant categories of rosacea. While none of these results met the strict False Discovery Rate correction threshold, they retained nominal significance. MR outcomes showed no pleiotropy, with homogeneity observed across selected SNPs. Directionality tests pointed toward a robust causative path from gut microbiota to rosacea. CONCLUSION: This study provides compelling evidence of the gut microbiota's nominal causal influence on rosacea, shedding light on the gut-skin axis's intricacies and offering potential avenues for therapeutic interventions in rosacea management. Further research is warranted to validate these findings and explore their clinical implications. PMID:38585146 | PMC:PMC10995375 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2024.1322685 {url} = URL to article
    • Dermatol Reports. 2023 Aug 25;16(1):9798. doi: 10.4081/dr.2023.9798. eCollection 2024 Mar 12. ABSTRACT Facial follicular scales, dandruff, scalp itching and ocular alterations are lesser-known signs of rosacea and demodicosis. The aim of this prospective original study was to investigate the presence of these signs and symptoms in patients with almost-clear, mild and moderate papulopustular rosacea (PPR) and to study the differences between Demodex-positive (D+) and Demodex-negative (D-) rosacea. Twenty-seven out of 60 patients (45%) presented follicular scales, 24 (40%) ocular involvement and 22 (36.67%) scalp involvement. Follicular scales were more frequently observed in mild and moderate than in almost-clear rosacea (P<0.001). Itching of the scalp was more frequently reported in patients with moderate rosacea than in those with mild disease (P=0.05). Follicular scales (P=0.002) and scalp itching (P=0.05) were more frequently reported in D+ than in D- patients. Among D+ patients, scalp itching was more frequently reported in mild than in almost clear rosacea (P=0.01) and ocular symptoms associated to scalp itching were more frequently reported in moderate than in almost-clear rosacea (P=0.05). We suggest looking for these signs and symptoms in all patients with PPR, because they can be a sign of a more severe form of rosacea or of demod-icosis. PMID:38585499 | PMC:PMC10993653 | DOI:10.4081/dr.2023.9798 {url} = URL to article
    • J Am Acad Dermatol. 2024 Apr 5:S0190-9622(24)00570-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2024.01.092. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:38583667 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2024.01.092 {url} = URL to article
    • Ann Dermatol. 2024 Apr;36(2):81-90. doi: 10.5021/ad.23.061. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Daily usage of facial masks during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic influenced on facial dermatoses. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of mask-wearing habits on facial dermatoses. METHODS: A nationwide, observational, questionnaire-based survey was conducted from July through August 2021, involving 20 hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: Among 1,958 facial dermatoses, 75.9% of patients experienced aggravation or development of new-onset facial dermatoses after wearing masks. In aggravated or newly developed acne patients (543 out of 743), associated factors were healthcare provider, female gender, and a long duration of mask-wearing. Irritating symptoms, xerosis, and hyperpigmentation were more frequently observed in this group. Aggravated or newly developed rosacea patients (515 out of 660) were likely to be female, young, and have a long duration of mask-wearing per day. Seborrheic dermatitis patients who experienced aggravation or de novo development (132 out of 184) were younger, and they more frequently involved the chin and jaw in addition to the nasolabial folds and both cheeks. Contact dermatitis patients (132 out of 147) with aggravation or de novo development tended to be female, involve both cheeks, and complain of pruritus. Aggravated or newly developed atopic dermatitis patients (165 out of 224) were more likely to be female, and had a higher baseline investigator global assessment score before mask-wearing. CONCLUSION: Clinical features and factors related to aggravation were different according to the types of facial dermatoses. PMID:38576246 | PMC:PMC10995613 | DOI:10.5021/ad.23.061 {url} = URL to article
    • Skin Health Dis. 2024 Jan 31;4(2):e346. doi: 10.1002/ski2.346. eCollection 2024 Apr. ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Overactivation of the mitogen activated kinase pathway has been associated with rosacea. We hypothesised that inhibitors of this pathway can be repurposed to alleviate rosacea symptoms. METHODS: In order to test this hypothesis, we designed a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and tolerability of a first-in-kind topical formulation of a MEK kinase inhibitor, trametinib. Subjects applied daily trametinib-containing cream (0.05 mg in 0.5 mL) to one cheek and cream without inhibitor to the other for consecutive 21 days. Skin irritation scores and blood samples were obtained during visits on days 8, 15 and 22. RESULTS: On analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography, no systemic trametinib absorption was detected during this treatment period. Subjects demonstrated a slight but significant improvement in both cheeks, regardless of drug contents. No adverse effects were reported during this time. CONCLUSIONS: Topical trametinib was well tolerated at a dose of 0.05 mg per day without meaningful systemic absorption or local adverse events. A dose escalation trial is warranted to determine optimal dosing to treat rosacea while avoiding the adverse effects of systemic treatment. PMID:38577058 | PMC:PMC10988662 | DOI:10.1002/ski2.346 {url} = URL to article
    • Mol Vis. 2023 Dec 26;29:357-364. eCollection 2023. ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate systemic and ocular toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression and its association with oxidative stress markers in ocular rosacea (OR). METHODS: This prospective study included 40 patients with rosacea with ocular involvement and 20 healthy volunteers. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test, meibomoscore, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores were estimated for all participants. TLR-4 expression in conjunctival epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the tears and serum samples of all participants, antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and arylesterase (ARE) activation levels were measured using a fully automated spectrophotometric method, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. RESULTS: TLR-4 expression levels and oxidative stress status (TOS and OSI values) were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and antioxidant status (TAS and ARE values) were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in both ocular and blood samples of patients with OR compared with those in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between the ocular and blood values in all parameters (p < 0.05). According to the clinical associations of these results, we found negative correlations between TLR-4, OSI, and TBUT and between TLR-4 and Schirmer, whereas a positive correlation was observed between TLR-4, OSI, and meiboscore and between TLR-4, OSI, and OSDI (p < 0.05). No correlation was found between the OSI and Schirmer results (p = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: TLR-4 and oxidative stress both play important roles in OR pathophysiology and are closely related to clinical findings. PMID:38577560 | PMC:PMC10994681 {url} = URL to article
    • PLoS One. 2024 Apr 4;19(4):e0301703. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0301703. eCollection 2024. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential association between rosacea and a heightened prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been previously suggested. However, existing studies offer inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the relationship between rosacea and HP infection. METHODS: We conducted comprehensive searches of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant observational studies for our investigation. We utilized the random-effects model to aggregate the data to address the potential influence of heterogeneity among the studies on the outcome. RESULTS: Our analysis incorporated twenty-five datasets from 23 case-control and cross-sectional studies, encompassing 51,054 rosacea patients and 4,709,074 controls without skin disease. The pooled results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of HP infection in individuals with rosacea compared to controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.95, p<0.001; I2 = 79%). Subgroup analysis indicated an increased prevalence of HP infection in rosacea studies that utilized one (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.66, p = 0.02; I2 = 76%) or more tests for HP infection (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.29-3.98, p = 0.005; I2 = 56%). However, this association was not observed in population-based studies that determined HP infection based on prescription records for HP eradication drugs (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76-1.07, p = 0.024; I2 = 54%). CONCLUSION: Rosacea may be significantly associated with a higher prevalence of HP infection. High-quality prospective studies with delicately controlled confounding factors are needed to determine if HP infection is a risk factor for rosacea. PMID:38574094 | PMC:PMC10994334 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0301703 {url} = URL to article
    • Curr Med Res Opin. 2024 Apr 8:1-5. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2024.2337668. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: This study focused on the link between skin disorders and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms. METHODS: Study cases were taken from a pre-conceptional care program where patients with poor obstetric history were evaluated in terms of systemic disorders including skin diseases. This retrospective cohort (n = 472) consisted of 110 (23.3%) and 362 (76.7%) women with or without skin disorders, respectively. For ease of analysis, the history of skin diseases was classified into seven categories: (1) acne/rosacea/other acneiform disorders; (2) fungal disease; (3) pruritis/xerosis; (4) psoriasis vulgaris; (5) acrochordons and other benign skin growths; (6) urticaria/dermatitis; and (7) viral diseases. RESULTS: In this retrospective cohort of 472 women, we explored the impact of MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms on skin disorders. Despite similar allelic frequencies, our findings revealed a statistically significant association between the presence of MTHFR polymorphisms and skin disorders (p = .027). Subgroup analysis indicated significantly higher rates of MTHFR polymorphisms in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (p = .033) and acrochordons (p = .030), highlighting their potential relevance in specific skin disorder subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of psoriasis and acrochordons among women with MTHFR deficiency underscores the complex relationship between genetic factors and dermatological health. Our findings emphasized the critical role of MTHFR polymorphisms not only in poor obstetric history but also as significant contributors to skin disorders. This dual association highlights the importance of comprehensive preconception counseling, especially customized for women affected by skin disorders. PMID:38557333 | DOI:10.1080/03007995.2024.2337668 {url} = URL to article
    • J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2024 Apr 1. doi: 10.1111/jdv.19954. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of rosacea might provide new therapeutic avenues for individuals with this disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare plasma levels of CGRP between individuals with rosacea and healthy controls. METHODS: In this cross-sectional case-control study conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark, we collected blood samples from the antecubital vein from adults with rosacea and from healthy controls. RESULTS: We enrolled 123 individuals with rosacea and 68 healthy controls. After adjusting for age and sex, plasma levels of CGRP were significantly higher in individuals with rosacea (mean, 95% confidence interval: 140.21 pmol/L, 128.50-151.92 pmol/L), compared with controls (110.77 pmol/L, 99.91-120.14 pmol/L, p = 0.002). Plasma levels of CGRP were not affected by age, sex, BMI, concomitant migraine, rosacea sub- or phenotype, concomitant disease or current treatment. LIMITATIONS: Participants were not age-, sex- and BMI-matched. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Elevated plasma levels of CGRP in individuals with rosacea suggest a role of CGRP in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Targeting CGRP signalling might hold therapeutic promise in people affected by this disease. GOV LISTING: NCT03872050. PMID:38558478 | DOI:10.1111/jdv.19954 {url} = URL to article
    • Acta Clin Croat. 2023 Aug;62(2):368-372. doi: 10.20471/acc.2023.62.02.16. ABSTRACT Tranexamic acid is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, an antifibrinolytic that is primarily used to reduce bleeding in surgery, trauma, and dental procedures. Its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties, as well as its ability to suppress melanogenesis have enabled it to be used in dermatology in the treatment of skin conditions such as melasma, acne, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, rosacea and angioedema. Tranexamic acid can be used by various routes of administration including oral, topical and intradermal injection, and in combination with other treatment methods. This review article presents evidence for the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in the treatment of various skin disorders. PMID:38549597 | PMC:PMC10969640 | DOI:10.20471/acc.2023.62.02.16 {url} = URL to article
    • Biomed Res Int. 2024 Mar 20;2024:9762194. doi: 10.1155/2024/9762194. eCollection 2024. ABSTRACT [This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2020/7015249.]. PMID:38550103 | PMC:PMC10977226 | DOI:10.1155/2024/9762194 {url} = URL to article
    • Antibiotics (Basel). 2024 Mar 17;13(3):270. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics13030270. ABSTRACT Clindamycin is a highly effective antibiotic of the lincosamide class. It has been widely used for decades to treat a range of skin and soft tissue infections in dermatology and medicine. Clindamycin is commonly prescribed for acne vulgaris, with current practice standards utilizing fixed-combination topicals containing clindamycin that prevent Cutibacterium acnes growth and reduce inflammation associated with acne lesion formation. Certain clinical presentations of folliculitis, rosacea, staphylococcal infections, and hidradenitis suppurativa are also responsive to clindamycin, demonstrating its suitability and versatility as a treatment option. This review describes the use of clindamycin in dermatological practice, the mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition by clindamycin at the level of the bacterial ribosome, and clindamycin's anti-inflammatory properties with a focus on its ability to ameliorate inflammation in acne. A comparison of the dermatologic indications for similarly utilized antibiotics, like the tetracycline class antibiotics, is also presented. Finally, this review addresses both the trends and mechanisms for clindamycin and antibiotic resistance, as well as the current clinical evidence in support of the continued, targeted use of clindamycin in dermatology. PMID:38534705 | DOI:10.3390/antibiotics13030270 {url} = URL to article
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