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The Flushing Patient:

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"Cutaneous flushing-a common presenting complaint to dermatologists, allergists, internists, and family practitioners-results from changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple conditions. Most cases are caused by very common, benign diseases, such as rosacea or climacterum, that are readily apparent after a thorough taking of history and physical examination. However, in some cases, accurate diagnosis requires further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies to differentiate several important clinicopathologic entities. In particular, the serious diagnoses of carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, mastocytosis, and anaphylaxis need to be excluded by laboratory studies. If this work-up is unrevealing, rare causes, such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, renal carcinoma, and others, should be considered."

The flushing patient: Differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment,

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 55, Issue 2 , August 2006, Pages 193-208.

Leonid Izikson MD, Joseph C. English III MD and Matthew J. Zirwas MD, Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Abstract Online

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