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Cureus. 2023 Mar 15;15(3):e36177. doi: 10.7759/cureus.36177. eCollection 2023 Mar.


Introduction Mucocutaneous complications in kidney transplant patients are due to drug toxicity or immunosuppression. The main objective of our study was to determine the risk factors associated with their occurrence. Methods We conducted a prospective analytical study (January 2020- June 2021) including kidney transplant patients seen at the Nephrology Department. We described the characteristics of the patients who presented mucocutaneous complications and then compared them to those who didn't to deduce the risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (p<0.05). Results Of the 86 patients recruited, thirty patients had mucocutaneous complications. The mean age was 42.73, with a male predominance (73%). Ten kidney transplants were performed from a living-related donor. All the patients received corticosteroids, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and the Calcineurin Inhibitor: Tacrolimus (76.7%) or Ciclosporin (23.3%). Induction was performed with Thymoglobulin (n=20) or Basiliximab (n=10). Mucocutaneous complications were dominated by infectious manifestations (53.4%): eight cases of fungal infections; six cases of viral infections: warts (n=3), herpes labialis (n=2), intercostal herpes zoster (n=1), and two cases of bacterial infections: atypical mycobacteria and boils. Inflammatory complications (36.6%) included acne (n=4), urticaria (n=3), rosacea (n=1), simple maculopapular exanthema (n=1), aphthous lesion (n=1), and black hairy tongue (n=1). Actinic keratosis, skin xerosis, and bruises were found in one patient respectively. The evolution with a symptomatic treatment was good in all the patients. After statistical analysis, the factors significantly associated with the occurrence of mucocutaneous complications were advanced age, male gender, anemia, HLA non-identical donor, as well as the use of Tacrolimus or Thymoglobulin. Conclusion Infectious mucocutaneous complications are the most common dermatological manifestations among renal transplant recipients. Their occurrence is related to advanced age, male gender, anemia, HLA non-identical donor, and the use of Tacrolimus or Thymoglobulin.

PMID:37065336 | PMC:PMC10103621 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.36177

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