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Drugs Aging. 2024 May;41(5):407-421. doi: 10.1007/s40266-024-01115-y. Epub 2024 Apr 23.


Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is often more severe in older patients. The main clinical features are erythema, telangiectasia, and inflammatory lesions of the face. The pathogenesis of this condition is not fully understood but certainly multifaceted. Immune and inflammatory dysregulation, genetics, neurogenic dysregulation, microbiome dysbiosis, and systemic disease have all been implicated in rosacea pathogenesis. As we better understand the various pathways that lead to rosacea, we acknowledge that the different symptoms may have unique underlying triggers and mechanisms. Aging also impacts rosacea diagnosis and treatment. Older adults have more severe rosacea symptoms while also having more sensitive and fragile skin than younger patients; therefore, rosacea treatments for older patients require a balance between delivering adequate potency while also minimizing skin irritation and other adverse effects. Until recently, rosacea diagnoses were based on concrete subtypes that did not necessarily capture each patient's manifestation of rosacea. There is now an emphasis on more personalized phenotype-based diagnoses and treatments, which allows for more emphasis on treating individual symptoms and accounting for the unique characteristics of older patients. Centrofacial erythema is best treated with brimonidine and oxymetazoline, while phymatous change and telangiectasia are best treated with surgery and laser ablation. Treatment for rosacea papules and pustules ranges from topicals, such as azelaic acid, ivermectin, metronidazole, minocycline, and encapsulated benzoyl peroxide, to systemics, such as doxycycline and isotretinoin. It is important to understand these treatments in relation to adverse effects and drug interactions that may specifically arise in older populations to provide optimal care. As we advance in understanding rosacea's pathogenesis and adopt personalized phenotype-based approaches, optimizing care for older patients becomes crucial. Continued research into novel treatments is essential to address their unique needs.

PMID:38649625 | DOI:10.1007/s40266-024-01115-y

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